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Table 1 Patient characteristics a

From: Association between systemic hemodynamics and septic acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

Characteristics All patients (N = 137) AKI − (N = 68) AKI + (N = 69) P value
Age (years) 71.1 (56.3 to 79.8) 68.5 (49.8 to 77.5) 73.4 (60.3 to 80.7) 0.044
Males 60 (45) 35 (41.5) 42 (60.9) 0.38
Comorbidities     
   COPD 12 (9) 9 (13) 3 (4) 0.06
   Diabetes mellitus 20 (15) 7 (10) 13 (19) 0.16
   Hypertension 59 (43) 23 (34) 36 (52) 0.03
   Heart failure 19 (14) 7 (10) 12 (17) 0.23
   CAD 16 (12) 6 (9) 10 (14) 0.3
   Liver disease 10 (7) 4 (6) 6 (9) 0.53
   Cancer 39 (28) 19 (30) 20 (29) 0.89
Medication before admission     
   NSAIDs 7 (5) 3 (4) 4 (6) 0.71
   Diuretics 28 (20) 11 (16) 17 (25) 0.22
   Statins 24 (17) 9 (13) 15 (22) 0.19
   Steroids 9 (7) 3 (4) 6 (9) 0.32
   β-blockers 29 (2) 12 (18) 17 (25) 0.32
   Antiplatelet therapy 27 (20) 13 (19) 14 (10) 0.86
Organ failure     
   Mechanical ventilation 118 (86) 55 (81) 63 (91) 0.08
   SAPS II 50 (39 to 60) 45 (33 to 52) 57 (46 to 67) <0.0001
   Norepinephrine 131 (96) 65 (95) 66 (95) 0.82
   Epinephrine 17 (12) 4 (6) 13 (19) 0.02
   Dobutamine 4 (3) 3 (4) 1 (1) 0.3
   Dose of norepinephrineb 0.44 (0.20 to 0.73) 0.31 (0.16 to 0.54) 0.56 (0.30 to 0.95) 0.0005
   Dose of epinephrineb 0.31 (0.14 to 0.40) 0.23 (0.15 to 0.32) 0.31 (0.12 to 42) 0.70
   Dose of dobutamineb 5 (5 to 5) 5 (5 to 5) 5 (5 to 5) 1
   Hydrocortisone 19 (14) 2 (10.5) 17 (25.4) 0.17
   Lactate (mmol/L) 2.8 (1.9 to 4.8) 2.7 (1.8 to 3.9) 3 (2.1 to 6.2) 0.06
   Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 141.5 (83 to 215.8) 88 (68 to 143.2) 185 (134 to 255) <0.0001
   Bilirubin (mg/ml) 16 (9 to 27.8) 14 (8 to 21.8) 16 (11 to 33) 0.04
   Platelet count (g/ml) 65 (30.8 to 98.2) 63 (28.8 to 89.2) 67 (31 to 102) 0.45
   Hemoglobin (g/dl) 10.3 (9.4 to 12) 10.3 (9.9 to 12) 10.4 (9.3 to 12.1) 0.39
   Base deficit (mmol/L) −7.7 (−11.3 to −3.4) −5 (−8.9 to −2.3) −8.8 (−13 to −5.8) 0.0006
   Fluid balance (ml) 3,480 (1,945 to 5,351) 2,905 (1,350 to 4,717.5) 3,591.5 (2,597.5 to 5,714) 0.008
   Origin of sepsis     
   Abdomen 78 (57) 37 (54) 41 (59) 0.55
   Lung 28 (20) 16 (23) 12 (17) 0.37
   Urinary tract 9 (7) 3 (4) 6 (9) 0.31
   Soft tissue 8 (6) 5 (7) 3 (4) 0.45
   Other 20 (15) 11 (16) 9 (13) 0.6
Nephrotoxic agents     
   Contrast media 82 (61) 41 (60) 41 (60) 0.21
   Vancomycin 53 (39) 29 (43) 24 (35) 0.31
   Aminoglycosides 9 (7) 5 (7) 4 (6) 0.71
   Colloids 108 (79) 47 (69) 61 (88) 0.005
  1. aAKI−, no or transient acute kidney injury; AKI+, new or persistent acute kidney injury; CAD, Coronary artery disease; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NSAID, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II. bData are micrograms per kilogram per minute among patients receiving the drug. The data in the table are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number (%).