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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the study patients according to 1-month neurological outcomes

From: Neurological outcomes in patients transported to hospital without a prehospital return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest

Characteristic CPC 1 to 2 (n = 1,957) CPC 3 to 5 (n = 396,164) P- value
Year    
 2007 428 (21.9) 90,384 (22.8) 0.391
 2008 508 (26.0) 99,106 (25.0)
 2009 475 (24.3) 100,188 (25.3)
 2010 546 (27.9) 106,486 (26.9)
Age, years (median 77, IQR 65 to 85) 64.4 ± 16.3 73.7 ± 16.2 <0.0001
 < 65 938 (47.9) 93,391 (23.6) <0.0001
 65 to 85 861 (44.0) 207,776 (52.4)
 > 85 158 (8.1) 94,997 (24.0)
Male 1,374 (70.2) 228,183 (57.6) <0.0001
Arrest witnessed by any layperson 1,430 (73.1) 144,630 (36.5) <0.0001
Arrest witnessed by EMS personnel 398 (20.3) 18,203 (4.6) <0.0001
Bystander CPR 924 (47.2) 175,320 (44.3) 0.009
Presumed cardiac cause 1,431 (73.1) 221,490 (55.9) <0.0001
Initial cardiac rhythm    
 Ventricular fibrillation 922 (47.1) 22,574 (5.7) <0.0001
 Pulseless ventricular tachycardia 24 (1.2) 703 (0.2)
 Pulseless electrical activity 573 (29.3) 83,435 (21.1)
 Asystole 438 (22.4) 289,452 (73.1)
Prehospital actual shock delivery 938 (47.9) 35,182 (8.9) <0.0001
Use of advanced airway management 502 (25.7) 127,497 (32.2) <0.0001
Epinephrine administration 168 (8.6) 30,049 (7.6) 0.10
Physician-staffed ambulance 96 (4.9) 8,318 (2.1) <0.0001
Call-to-response time, minutes (median 7, IQR 5 to 9) 6.4 ± 3.2 7.5 ± 3.8 <0.0001
 < 5 468 (23.9) 64,159 (16.2) <0.0001
 5 to 9 1,290 (65.9) 252,493 (63.8)
 > 9 199 (10.2) 79,512 (20.1)
Call-to-hospital arrival time, minutes (median 30, IQR 24 to 37) 28.1 ± 12.8 31.8 ± 11.6 <0.0001
 < 24 774 (39.5) 88,648 (22.4) <0.0001
 24 to 37 917 (46.9) 219,827 (55.5)
 > 37 266 (13.6) 87,689 (22.1)
  1. Values are reported either as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation. CPC, cerebral performance category; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMS, emergency medical service.