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Table 1 Patient characteristics and pathogens

From: Initial use of one or two antibiotics for critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia: impact on survival and bacterial resistance

Parameters Total (n = 956) Died within 60 days (n = 259, 27%)* Alive on day 60 (n = 697, 73%) P- value
Variables at admission     
Male, n (%) 633 (66.2) 190 (73.4) 443 (63.6) 0.004
Age, years (median [IQR]) 62 [46; 76] 72 [58; 80] 58 [42; 73] <0.0001
Scores, median [IQR]     
SAPSII 43.5 [31; 59] 60 [43; 74] 39 [27; 53] <0.0001
SOFA score 6 [4; 9] 9 [6; 12] 5 [3; 8] <0.0001
LOD score 5 [2; 7] 7 [4; 10] 4 [2; 6] <0.0001
Coma Glasgow Scale 13 [5; 15] 7 [3; 15] 14 [7; 15] <0.0001
McCabe, n (%)     <0.0001
1 684 (71.7) 140 (54.1) 544 (78.3)  
2 235 (24.6) 98 (37.8) 137 (19.7)  
3 35 (3.7) 21 (8.1) 14 (2.0)  
CURB-65, n (%)     <0.0001
0 13 (1.4) 0 (0) 13 (1.9)  
1 62 (6.5) 4(1.6) 58 (8.3)  
2 176 (18.4) 22 (8.5) 154 (22.1)  
3 292 (30.6) 65 (25.2) 227 (32.6)  
4 252 (26.4) 90 (34.9) 162 (23.2)  
5 160 (16.8) 77 (29.8) 83 (11.9)  
Co-morbidities (Knaus definitions), n (%)
Chronic hepatic failure 43 (4.5) 22 (8.5) 21 (3.0) 0.0003
Chronic heart failure 107 (11.2) 38 (14.7) 69 (9.9) 0.04
Chronic respiratory failure 167 (17.5) 55 (21.2) 112 (16.1) 0.06
Chronic renal failure 19 (2.0) 7 (2.7) 12 (1.7) 0.33
Diabetes 123 (12.9) 40 (15.4) 83 (11.9) 0.15
≥ One co-morbidity 352 (36.8) 124 (47.9) 228 (32.7) <0.0001
Smokers ( >20 pack-year), n (%) 243 (30.6) 57 (26.6) 186 (32.1) 0.14
Alcohol ( >80 g/day), n (%) 189 (23.8) 44 (20.6) 145 (25.0) 0.19
Sepsis, n (%) 928 (97.1) 252(97.3) 676 (97.0) 0.80
Severe sepsis, n (%) 828 (86.6) 235 (90.7) 593 (85.1) 0.02
Septic shock, n (%) 325 (34.0) 132 (51.0) 193 (27.7) <0.0001
Treatments, n (%) unless otherwise stated
Invasive ventilation 604 (63.3) 207 (79.9) 397 (57.0) <0.0001
Noninvasive ventilation 107 (11.2) 25 (9.7) 82 (11.8) 0.36
Inotropes or vasoactive agents 422 (44.1) 167 (64.5) 255 (36.6) <0.0001
Corticosteroids 182 (19.0) 66 (25.5) 116 (16.6) 0.002
Hemodialysis/hemofiltration 63 (6.6) 33 (12.7) 30 (4.3) <0.0001
Antibiotic therapy duration in days (median [IQR]) 7 [4; 13] 8 [3; 15] 7 [4; 13] 0.69
Organisms, n (%)     
Streptococcus pneumoniae 202 (21.1) 52 (20.1) 150 (21.5) 0.63
Staphylococcus aureus 104 (10.9) 31(12.0) 73 (10.5) 0.51
Streptococcus spp. 36 (3.8) 12 (4.6) 24 (3.4) 0.39
Enterocococcus spp. 3 (0.3) 0 3 (0.4) 0.29
Hemophilus influenzae 97 (10.1) 25 (9.7) 72 (10.3) 0.76
Escherichia coli 34 (3.6) 16 (6.2) 18 (2.6) 0.008
Enterobacter spp. 13 (1.4) 6 (2.3) 7 (1.0) 0.12
Klebsiella pneumoniae 28 (2.9) 13 (5.0) 15 (2.2) 0.02
Serratia marescens 4 (0.4) 0 (0) 4 (0.6) 0.22
Proteus mirabilis 9 (0.9) 5 (1.9) 4 (0.6) 0.05
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 29 (3.0) 16 (6.2) 13 (1.9) 0.0005
Legionella pneumophila 25 (2.6) 4 (1.5) 21 (3.0) 0.21
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 1 (0.1) 0.54
Chlamydia pneumoniae 2 (0.2) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0.47
Aspergillus fugimatus 3 (0.3) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.1) 0.12
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 14 (1.5) 3 (1.2) 11 (1.6) 0.63
Viruses 24 (2.5) 3 (1.2) 21 (3.0) 0.10
Other 14 (1.5) 4 (1.5) 10 (1.4) 0.90
Multiple organisms 92 (9.6) 29 (11.2) 63 (9.0) 0.31
None identified 418 (43.7) 99 (38.2) 319 (45.8) 0.04
Bacteremia 121 (12.7) 45 (17.4) 76 (10.9) 0.008
Acquisition of MDR pathogen or nosocomial pneumonia, n (%)
MDR bacteria 105 (11.0) 34 (13.1) 71(10.2) 0.19
MRSA 25 (2.6) 9 (3.5) 16 (2.3) 0.31
Enterobacteriaceae ESBL 38 (4.0) 15 (5.8) 23 (3.3) 0.08
Nonfermentative GNB 56 (5.9) 16 (6.2) 40 (5.7) 0.80
Clostridium difficile 9 (0.9) 2 (0.8) 7 (1.0) 0.74
Nosocomial pneumonia 127 (13.3) 48 (18.5) 79 (11.3) 0.004
ICU stay in days, median [IQR] 7 [3; 15] 8 [3; 17] 6 [3; 14] 0.45
Hospital stay in days, median [IQR] 16 [8; 31] 10 [4; 22] 18 [10; 38] <0.0001
  1. *273 (28.6) patients died in all, including 259 (27.1%) within 60 days and 54 (5.6%) within 48 h of ICU admission.
  2. ESBL, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; GNB, Gram-negative bacilli, Nonfermentative GNB (Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia); IQR, interquartile range; LOD, Logistic Organ Dysfunction Score; MDR, multidrug resistant; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.