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Table 3 Causes and time of death after PDT

From: Death after percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy: a systematic review and analysis of risk factors

Cause of death Total number Time of death
Intra-procedural Post-procedural
Total number 71   22 (31.0%) 49 (69.0%)
Hemorrhage 27 (38.0%) 3 (11.1%) 24 (88.9%)
  - innominate artery 11 (40.7%)    11 (100.0%)
  - aortic arch 2 (7.4%)    2 (100.0%)
  - subclavian artery 1 (3.7%) 1 (100.0%)   
  - thyroid artery 1 (3.7%)    1 (100.0%)
  - other artery 1 (3.7%) 1 (100.0%)   
  - venous 5 (18.5%) 1 (20.0%) 4 (80.0%)
  - diffuse/unknown 6 (22.2%)    6 (100.0%)
Airway complications 21 (29.6%) 7 (33.3%) 14 (66.7%)
  - dislocation of the tracheal cannula 11 (52.4%) 1 (9.1%) 10 (90.9%)
  - lost airway during the procedure 4 (19.0%) 3 (75.0%) 1 (25.0%)
  - paratracheal misplacement of the tracheal cannula 3 (14.3%) 3 (100.0%)   
  - obstruction of tracheal cannula 2 (9.5%)    2 (100.0%)
  - hypoxemia during cannula replacement 1 (4.8%)    1 (100.0%)
Tracheal perforation 11 (15.5%) 1 (9.1%) 10 (90.9%)
Pneumothorax 4 (5.6%) 4 (100.0%)   
Bronchospasm 3 (4.2%) 3 (100.0%)   
Cardiac arrest/arrhythmia 3 (4.2%) 3 (100.0%)   
Sepsis 1 (1.4%)    1 (100.0%)
Unknown 1 (1.4%) 1 (100.0%)