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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients enrolled in the study

From: Kinetics of circulating immunoglobulin M in sepsis: relationship with final outcome

  SIRS (n= 41) Sepsis (n= 100) Severe sepsis (n= 113) Septic shock (n= 78) P
Male/female 25/16 50/50 57/56 37/41 0.598*
Age (years, mean ± SD) 66.1 ± 10.9 66.6 ± 19.8 73.0 ± 14.1 70.0 ± 16.5  
APACHE II (mean ± SD) 5.9 ± 3.3 13.3 ± 5.9a 19.7 ± 6.8b, c 23.2 ± 6.8d, e, f  
WBCs (/mm3, mean ± SD) 11270.4 ± 4364.8 14406.8 ± 6405.6 14982.3 ± 9682.4 16442.9 ± 9446.3d  
Lymphocytes (/mm3, mean ± SD) 2298.3 ± 422.1 1942.0 ± 224.7 478.0 ± 236.2 997.3 ± 750.8  
CD19-cells (/mm3, mean ± SD) 182.9 ± 40.7 86.7 ± 21.5 40.9 ± 10.0 43.5 ± 19.1  
C-reactive protein (mg/l), median (IQR) 4.3 (4.9) 100.8 (140.8)a 141.7 (153.3)b 153.0 (137.5)d  
Infection (n %)      <0.0001*
UTI   44 (44.0) 24 (21.2) 13 (16.7)  
CAP   15 (15.0) 32 (28.3) 30 (38.5)  
IAI   24 (24.0) 17 (15.0) 8 (10.3)  
BSI   14 (14.0) 15 (13.3) 17 (21.8)  
VAP   3 (3.0) 25 (22.1) 10 (12.8)  
Acute pancreatitis 41 (100)     
Type of IAI (n, %)      0.238*
Peritonitis after gut rupture   1 (1.0) 2 (1.8) 2 (2.6)  
Acute cholecystitis   4 (4.0) 2 (1.8) 0 (0)  
Acute cholangitis   14 (14.0) 7 (6.2) 3 (3.8)  
Acute diverticulitis   2 (2.0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Intrabdominal abscess   3 (2.0) 5 (4.4) 3 (3.8)  
Isolated microorganisms (n, %)      <0.0001*
Escherichia coli 0 (0) 23 (23.0) 14 (12.4) 12 (15.4)  
Klebsiella pneumoniae 0 (0) 11 (11.0) 17 (15.0) 7 (8.9)  
Acinetobacter baumannii 0 (0) 4 (4.0) 10 (8.8) 5 (6.4)  
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0 (0) 4 (4.0) 5 (4.4) 5 (6.4)  
Proteus mirabilis 0 (0) 7 (7.0) 4 (3.5) 1 (1.3)  
Streptococcus pneumoniae 0 (0) 7 (7.0) 0 (0) 3 (3.8)  
Staphylococcus aureus 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 3 (3.8)  
Other Gram-negatives 0 (0) 1 (1.0) 6 (5.3) 4 (5.1)  
Co-morbidities (n, %)      0.109*
Diabetes mellitus type 2 14 (34.2) 23 (23.0) 32 (28.3) 22 (28.2)  
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder 7 (17.1) 9 (9.0) 25 (22.1) 14 (17.9)  
Chronic heart failure 9 (21.9) 16 (16.0) 26 (23.0) 27 (34.6)  
Chronic renal disease 5 (12.2) 10 (10.0) 14 (12.4) 9 (11.5)  
28-day mortality (n, %) 0 (0) 14 (14.0) 52 (46.0) 46 (58.9) <0.0001*
Hospital mortality (n, %) 0 (0) 14 (14.0) 55 (48.7) 50 (64.1) <0.0001*
  1. Statistically significant differences by ANOVA after post hoc Bonferroni corrections: asepsis vs. SIRS; bseptic shock vs. severe sepsis; csevere sepsis vs. sepsis; dseptic shock vs. SIRS; esevere sepsis vs. SIRS; fseptic shock vs. sepsis. *refers to the comparison of the distributions of the respective qualitative characteristic between SIRS, sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock by the X2 test. APACHE II, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II; BSI, primary bacteremia; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; IQR, interquartile range; IAI, intra-abdominal infection; SD, standard deviation; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; WBC, white blood cell; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia; UTI, urinary tract infection.