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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study patients a

From: Termination-of-resuscitation rule for emergency department physicians treating out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: an observational cohort study

Characteristics All patients Development group, 2005 to 2008 Validation group, 2009 P- value
  (N= 495,607, 100%) (n= 390,577, 78.8%) (n= 105,030, 21.2%)  
Age, years 76 (64 to 84) 76 (64 to 84) 77 (65 to 85) <0.0001
Males 290,712 (58.7%) 229,822 (58.8%) 60,890 (58.0%) <0.0001
Witnessed cardiac arrest 188,471 (38.0%) 147,997 (37.9%) 40,474 (38.5%) <0.0001
Cardiac arrest witnessed by EMS personnel 22,722 (4.6%) 17,514 (4.5%) 5,208 (5.0%) <0.0001
Bystander CPR 202,827 (40.9%) 151,712 (38.8%) 51,115 (48.7%) <0.0001
Presumed cardiac etiology 276,183 (55.7%) 216,242 (55.4%) 59,941 (57.0%) <0.0001
Shockable initial cardiac rhythm 38,388 (7.75%) 30,154 (7.7%) 8,234 (7.8%) 0.1992
Prehospital AED administration 53,427 (10.8%) 42,216 (10.8%) 11,211 (10.7%) 0.212
Call-to-response time, minutes 9 (7 to 11) 6 (5 to 9) 7 (5 to 9) <0.0001
Call-to-hospital arrival time, minutes 29 (23 to 36) 29 (23 to 36) 30 (24 to 37) <0.0001
Prehospital ROSC 25,254 (5.1%) 18,835 (4.8%) 6,419 (6.1%) <0.0001
One-month outcome after cardiac arrest
Survival 19,453 (3.93%) 14,898 (3.81%) 4,555 (4.34%) <0.0001
Favorable neurological outcome (CPC category 1 or 2) 8,391 (1.69%) 6,244 (1.60%) 2,147 (2.04%) <0.0001
  1. aAED, automated external defibrillator; CPC, Cerebral Performance Category; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMS, emergency medical services; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation. Values are reported as either number of patients (%) or medians (interquartile range [1st to 3rd quartiles]).