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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics

From: Incidence, risk factors and prediction of post-operative acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery for active infective endocarditis: an observational study

  All patients (n = 202) No post-operative AKI (n = 82) Post-operative AKI (n = 120) P-value
Age, years, median (IQR) 42 (28 to 59) 50 (37 to 66) 36 (27 to 51) <0.001
Gender, male, n (%) 134 (66.3) 49 (59.8) 85 (70.8) 0.14
Comorbidities, n (%)     
  COPD 9 (4.4) 2 (2.4) 7 (5.8) 0.42
  Diabetes mellitus 22 (10.9) 7 (8.5) 15 (12.5) 0.63
  Hypertension 60 (29.7) 22 (26.8) 38 (31.7) 0.56
  Heart failure 13 (6.4) 3 (3.7) 10 (8.3) 0.30
  CAD 11 (5.4) 3 (3.7) 8 (6.7) 0.54
  Autoimmune disease 8 (4.0) 4 (4.9) 4 (3.3) 0.85
  Liver disease 17 (8.4) 5 (6.1) 12 (10.0) 0.47
  Cancer 17 (8.4) 6 (7.3) 11 (9.2) 0.84
Pre-operative condition     
  Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 16 (7.9) 2 (2.4) 14 (11.7) 0.03
  Cathecolamine use, n (%) 18 (8.9) 4 (4.9) 14 (11.7) 0.16
   Norepinephrine, (%) 9 (4.4) 1 (1.2) 8 (6.7) 0.13
   Epinephrine, n (%) 3 (1.5) 0 (0) 3 (2.5) 0.39
   Dobutamine, n (%) 9 (4.4) 4 (4.9) 5 (4.2) 1
  % LVEF, median (IQR) 65 (60 to 70) 65 (60 to 70) 65 (58 to 70) 0.10
  Baseline serum creatinine, μmol/l, median (IQR) 83 (75 to 100) 78 (62 to 86) 90 (80 to 100) <0.001
  Pre-operative serum creatinine, μmol/l, median (IQR) 100 (76 to 132) 77 (62 to 100) 116 (91 to 157) <0.001
  Bilirubin, mg/ml, median (IQR) 13 (10 to 20) 12 (9 to 15) 14 (11 to 22) 0.02
  Platelet count, G/l, median (IQR) 249 (187 to 319) 261 (205 to 324) 244 (173 to 307) 0.06
  CRP, median (IQR) 51 (11 to 87) 46 (17 to 106) 67 (30 to 159) 0.10
  Hemoglobin, g/dl, median (IQR) 10.8 (9.5 to 11.9) 11 .3 (10.3 to 12.3) 10.3 (9.1 to 11.4) <0.001
Pre-operative nephrotoxic agents, n (%)     
  Contrast agent 94 (46.5) 36 (43.9) 58 (48.3) 0.63
  Vancomycin 36 (17.8) 6 (7.3) 30 (25.0) 0.002
  Aminoglycoside 119 (58.9) 45 (54.9) 74 (61.7) 0.41
Surgery     
  Emergency surgery, n (%) 27 (13.4) 9 (11.0) 18 (15.0) 0.54
  CPB duration, minutes, median (IQR) 118 (85 to 163) 100 (76 to 142) 118 (95 to 1800 0.004
  Aortic clamping duration, minutes, median (IQR) 89 (65 to 121) 76 (59 to 100) 90 (74 to 132) 0.002
  Circulatory arrest, n (%) 5 (2.5) 2 (2.4) 3 (2.5) 1
  1. AKI, acute kidney injury; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CAD, coronary artery disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; CRP, C reactive protein.