Adipogenesis and macrophage accumulation in human in vivo subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies. Total caloric intake during first seven days in ICU (A), Median adipocyte size (B), Computerized quantification of macrophage immunostaining (C), Gene expression of the M1-type macrophage marker tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) (D), Gene expression of the M2-type macrophage marker Arginase1 (E). AU is arbitrary units. Data boxes present median and IQR; whiskers represent the 10th and the 90th percentiles. White boxes present healthy volunteers (n = 13), light gray boxes are critically ill patients allocated to the early parenteral nutrition (PN) protocol (n = 20), and dark gray boxes are patients allocated to the late PN protocol (n = 20).