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Table 1 Patients classified by Shock Index: demographics, injury mechanism and severities as well as outcome parameters

From: The Shock Index revisited – a fast guide to transfusion requirement? A retrospective analysis on 21,853 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU®

  Group I (SI <0.6, no shock) Group II (SI ≥0.6 to <1.0, mild shock) Group III (SI ≥1.0 to <1.4, moderate shock) Group IV (SI ≥1.4, severe shock)
Demographics     
n (total, %) 6,482 (29.7) 12,097 (55.4) 2,272 (10.4) 1,002 (4.6)
Male 4,858 (74.9) 8,782 (72.6) 1,638 (72.1) 727 (72.6)
Age (years) 50.3 ± 20.4 43.4 ± 19.3 43.2 ± 19.8 44.1 ± 19.2
Blunt trauma 6,069 (96.0) 11,151 (94.5) 2,077 (92.4) 918 (92.4)
Injury severity     
NISS (points)     
 Mean ± standard deviation 25.1 ± 15.9 26.7 ± 16.0 35.7 ± 17.3 43.2 ± 17.5
 Median (IQR) 22 (14 to 34) 24 (17 to 34) 34 (22 to 48) 41 (29 to 57)
ISS (points)     
 Mean ± standard deviation 19.3 ± 12.0 21.6 ± 13.3 29.7 ± 15.6 37.3 ± 16.8
 Median (IQR) 17 (10 to 25) 20 (12 to 29) 29 (18 to 38) 34 (25 to 48)
RISC (points) 13.6 ± 21.3 12.4 ± 21.5 24.1 ± 29.9 38.8 ± 34.2
AIS head ≥3 points 2,998 (45.9) 4,903 (40.3) 1,106 (48.3) 522 (51.7)
AIS thorax ≥3 points 2,355 (36.1) 5,410 (44.5) 1,343 (58.6) 703 (69.6)
AIS abdomen ≥3 points 495 (7.6) 1,703 (14.0) 621 (27.1) 417 (41.3)
AIS pelvis/extremities ≥3 points 1,399 (21.4) 3,869 (31.8) 1,044 (45.6) 581 (57.5)
Outcome     
Mortality 712 (10.9) 1179 (9.7) 525 (22.9) 402 (39.8)
Hospital LOS (days)     
 Mean ± standard deviation 17.1 ± 19.6 20.7 ± 22.2 26.1 ± 26.9 25.2 ± 30.4
 Median (IQR) 13 (5 to 22) 15 (6 to 27) 20 (6 to 37) 18 (0 to 38)
ICU (days)     
 Mean ± standard deviation 7.5 ± 10.6 9.3 ± 12.1 14.0 ± 16.0 15.5 ± 18.9
 Median (IQR) 3 (1 to 10) 4 (2 to 13) 9 (3 to 21) 10 (1 to 24)
Ventilator days     
 Mean ± standard deviation 4.8 ± 8.9 6.0 ± 10.1 9.8 ± 13.5 11.9 ± 16.1
 Median (IQR) 1 (1 to 5) 1 (0 to 8) 4 (1 to 14) 6 (1 to 18)
Multiple organ failure 689 (12.5) 1,567 (14.7) 569 (28.0) 309 (38.2)
Sepsis 353 (6.3) 855 (7.9) 296 (14.3) 178 (21.6)
  1. Data presented as n (%), mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range (IQR)). n = 21,853; P <0.001 for all parameters except sex (P = 0.003). AIS Abbreviated injury scale, ISS Injury severity score, LOS Length of stay, NISS New injury severity score, RISC Revised injury severity classification, SI Shock index.