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Table 3 Breathing pattern, respiratory muscle output and continuous positive airway pressure level during spontaneous breathing at clinical and two physiological settings of continuous positive airway pressure for the upper airway obstruction and bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients.a

From: Continuous positive airway pressure titration in infants with severe upper airway obstruction or bronchopulmonary dysplasia

UAO (n= 7) Spontaneous breathing Clinical CPAP Physiological CPAP Physiological CPAP+1 cmH2O
Respiratory parameters     
  f R (breaths/min) 46 ± 16b 36 ± 19 34 ± 17 32 ± 20
  T I /T TOT 0.6 ± 0.1b 0.5 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1
Respiratory muscle output     
  Poes swing (cmH2O) 30 ± 17b 18 ± 10 12 ± 6 16 ± 7
  Pdi swing (cmH2O) 25 ± 9b 20 ± 10c 14 ± 7 17 ± 8
  Pgas swing (cmH2O) 5 ± 2b 3 ± 1 3 ± 1 3 ± 1
  Expiratory Pgas swing (cmH2O) 1 ± 2 1 ± 1 1 ± 1 2 ± 2
  PTPoes/breath (cmH2O/s) 13 ± 7 10 ± 8 7 ± 6 11 ± 10
  PTPdi/breath (cmH2O/s) 12 ± 5 11 ± 7 7 ± 5 10 ± 7
  PTPoes/min (cmH2O/s/min) 599 ± 415b 291 ± 162 201 ± 150 271 ± 188
  PTPdi/min (cmH2O/s/min) 459 ± 155b 332 ± 161c 212 ± 135 262 ± 193
  CPAP level (cmH2O) NA 9 ± 1 11 ± 2 12 ± 2
BPD ( n = 5) Spontaneous Breathing Clinical CPAP Physiological CPAP Physiological CPAP+1 cmH 2 O
Respiratory parameters     
  f R (breaths/min) 54 ± 6 56 ± 18 45 ± 13 46 ± 11
  T I /T TOT 0.4 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1
Respiratory muscle output     
  Poes swing (cmH2O) 32 ± 11d 25 ± 11c 10 ± 2 11 ± 2
  Pdi swing (cmH2O) 27 ± 9d 20 ± 5c 11 ± 4 11 ± 1
  Pgas swing (cmH2O) 2 ± 1 2 ± 1 2 ± 1 2 ± 0
  Expiratory Pgas swing (cmH2O) 7 ± 4 7 ± 6 1 ± 1 1 ± 1
  PTPoes/breath (cmH2O/s) 10 ± 4d 9 ± 4c 4 ± 2 4 ± 2
  PTPdi/breath (cmH2O/s) 9 ± 4 7 ± 3 5 ± 2 3 ± 0
  PTPoes/min (cmH2O/s/min) 526 ± 201d 468 ± 290c 156 ± 43 181 ± 43
  PTPdi/min (cmH2O/s/min) 442 ± 153 379 ± 183 183 ± 50 156 ± 0
  CPAP level (cmH2O) NA 7 ± 1 9 ± 1 10 ± 1
  1. aBPD: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure, f R : respiratory rate, NA: not applicable, Poes: oesophageal pressure, Pdi: transdiaphragmatic pressure, Pgas: gastric pressure, PTP: pressure time product, T I /T TOT : inspiratory time/total respiratory cycle time ratio, UAO: upper airway obstruction. bP < 0.05 between spontaneous breathing and clinical CPAP or physiological CPAP or physiological CPAP+1 cmH2O. cP < 0.05 between clinical CPAP and physiological CPAP. dP < 0.05 between spontaneous breathing and physiological CPAP or physiological CPAP+1 cmH2O.