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Table 2 Breathing pattern, respiratory muscle output and continuous positive airway pressure level during spontaneous breathing at clinical and two physiological settings of continuous positive airway pressure in the total population.a

From: Continuous positive airway pressure titration in infants with severe upper airway obstruction or bronchopulmonary dysplasia

  Spontaneous breathing Clinical CPAP Physiological CPAP Physiological CPAP+1 cmH2O
Respiratory parameters     
  f R (breaths/min) 49 ± 14 44 ± 21 38 ± 16b 36 ± 18
  T I /T TOT 0.5 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1c 0.4 ± 0.1
Respiratory muscle output     
  Poes swing (cmH2O) 31 ± 15 21 ± 10d 11 ± 5b 14 ± 6
  Pdi swing (cmH2O) 26 ± 8 20 ± 8d 12 ± 6b 15 ± 7
  Pgas swing (cmH2O) 4 ± 2 3 ± 1 2 ± 1c 2 ± 1
  Expiratory Pgas swing (cmH2O) 4 ± 4 3 ± 5 1 ± 1 2 ± 2
  PTPoes/breath (cmH2O/s) 12 ± 6 9 ± 6 6 ± 5b 9 ± 9
  PTPdi/breath (cmH2O/s) 11 ± 4 9 ± 6 6 ± 4b 8 ± 6
  PTPoes/min (cmH2O/s/min) 571 ± 340 359 ± 227 183 ± 119e 244 ± 161
  PTPdi/min (cmH2O/s/min) 452 ± 146 350 ± 164 201 ± 108b 239 ± 173
  CPAP level (cmH2O) NA 8 ± 2 10 ± 2 11 ± 2
  1. aCPAP: continuous positive airway pressure, f R : respiratory rate, NA: not applicable, Poes: oesophageal pressure, Pdi: transdiaphragmatic pressure, Pgas: gastric pressure, PTP: pressure-time product, T I /T TOT : inspiratory time/total respiratory cycle time ratio. bP < 0.05 between physiological CPAP and spontaneous breathing or clinical CPAP. cP < 0.05 between spontaneous breathing and physiological CPAP. dP < 0.05 between spontaneous breathing and clinical CPAP. eP < 0.05 between physiological CPAP and spontaneous breathing, physiological CPAP or physiological CPAP+1 cmH2O.