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Table 1 Demographics and clinical data of patients on drug initiation (n = 63) and with regard to initial Cpeak/MIC ratio and loading dose (D1 = 18 to 24 mg/kg; D2 = 25 to 30 mg/kg)

From: Therapeutic drug monitoring of amikacin in septic patients

  All patients
(n= 63)
Cpeak/MIC ≥8
(n= 40)
Cpeak/MIC <8
(n= 23)
D1
(n= 39)
D2
(n= 24)
Female/Male, n 22 / 41 14 / 30 8 / 11 13 / 26 9 / 16
Age (years) 59 ± 16 58 ± 15 60 ± 18 59 ± 15 59 ± 18
IBW (kg) 65 ± 10 65 ± 9 64 ± 10 64 ± 10 66 ± 9
ABW (kg) 67 ± 12 68 ± 13 66 ± 12 67 ± 13 67 ± 10
APACHE II score 21 (19-25) 21 (19-24) 23 (18-27) 21 (15-31) 21 (12-27)
SOFA 10 (8-11) 10 (8-11) 9 (8-11) 10 (7-11) 9 (8-11)
Severe sepsis/septic shock, n 43 / 20 26 / 14 17 / 6 28 / 11 15 / 9
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 63 (100) 40 (100) 23 (100) 39 (100) 24 (100)
Immunosuppression, n (%) 13 (21) 8 (20) 5 (22) 8 (21) 5 (21)
Concomitant nephrotoxic agents, n (%)      
Vancomycin 4 (6) 3 1 3 1
Colistin 8 (13) 5 3 5 3
Amphotericin B - - - - -
NSAIDs 24 (38) 15 9 14 10
Contrast medium 11 (17) 8 3 7 4
Diuretics 15 (24) 10 5 9 6
Others 1 (2) 1 - 1 -
Type of infection, n (%)      
CR-BS 10 (16) 6 4 5 5
VAP 34 (54) 24 10 23 11
HAP 7 (11) 6 1 6 1
Peritonitis 6 (9) 3 3 3 3
Others 6 (9) 1 5 2 4
Temperature, °C 37.7 ± 1.0 37.9 ± 0.8 37.6 ± 1.1 37.7 ± 1.0 38.0 ± 0.7
White blood cells, n × 103/mm3 12.7 (8.5-16.7) 12.6 (8.4-19.3) 12.8 (8.8-15.9) 13.6 (8.8-17.1) 12.1 (8.1-20.1)
C-reactive protein, ng/mL 121 (69-166) 108 (60-159) 139 (102-196)* 113 (76-159) 132 (98-194)#
Procalcitonin, ng/mL 1.2 (0.5-5.9) 0.7 (0.3-4.6) 1.8 (1.1-6.8)* 0.7 (0.3-5.5) 2.0 (1.2-7.9)#
Hematocrit, % 27.9 (25.7-30) 28.8 (25.8-31.6) 27.0 (25.5-29.2) 28.0 (22.8-39) 26.7 (22.3-38.1)
Serum proteins, g/dL 4.9 ± 0.7 4.5 ± 0.6 5.0 ± 1.0 5.0 ± 0.8 4.9 ± 0.8
Albumin, g/dL 2.2 ± 0.5 2.1 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.3
Serum creatinine, mg/dL 1.1 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.7
Creatinine clearance, mL/min 67 (50-118) 81 (52-108) 65 (45-130) 80 (40-108) 64 (50-143)
ICU stay, days 50 (18-65) 37 (14-77) 46 (11-58) 48 (24-68) 47 (17-66)
ICU mortality, n (%) 16 (25) 11 (27) 5 (22) 8 (21) 8 (33)
  1. Data are presented as counts (percentage), mean (± standard deviation (SD)) or median (interquartile range (IQR). *P <0.05 vs. Cpeak/MIC ≥8; #P<0.05 vs. D1. Cpeak, peak concentration; MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration; D1, loading dose 18 to 24 mg/kg; D2, loading dose 25 to 30 mg/kg; IBW, ideal body weight; ABW, adjusted body weight; APACHE, acute physiology and health evaluation; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; CR-BSI, catheter-related bloodstream infection; HAP, hospital-acquired pneumonia; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia.