Inhibition of autophagy enhances cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced liver injury. (A) Histological findings of mouse liver by hematoxylin and eosin staining (original magnification 100×) with a larger view (insets, 400×). Liver tissue was obtained from either sham-operated or CLP mice with or without chloroquine (CQ) treatment 6 h after surgery. (B) Hepatocellular damage as defined by serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and arginin aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Samples were obtained from either sham-operated or CLP mice with or without CQ treatment 6 and 24 h after surgery (n = 7/group). Data are shown as mean ± SD. *P <0.05 versus saline treatment (one-way analysis of variance); individual group means were compared using the Student-Newman-Keuls test. (C) Survival after CQ or sterile saline administration (n = 18/group) in sham-operated or CLP mice; 3/18 mice in the CLP + saline group and 12/18 mice in the CLP + CQ group were sacrificed because they were moribund. Comparisons of overall survival were performed using the log-rank test (P = 0.003; CLP + saline versus CLP + CQ).