Blockade of the autophagic process by chloroquine. Green fluorescent protein- microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) transgenic mice were administered saline or chloroquine (CQ) (60 mg/kg intraperitoneally) at 1 h after CLP or sham surgery. Samples were obtained from 6 or 24 h after surgery. (A) Confocal images of liver samples obtained from GFP-LC3 transgenic mice with or without CQ treatment. Blockade of autophagic process is indicated by the arrow head. (B) The number of GFP-LC3 or GFP-LC3 + lysosome-associated membrane protein type 1 (LAMP1) dots per cellular confocal image obtained from GFP-LC3 transgenic mice with or without CQ treatment was quantified at 6 and 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). All data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Data were analyzed for statistical significance using the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Differences in the number of GFP-LC3 or GFP-LC3 + LAMP1 dots in CLP mice at 24 h compared with CLP mice at 24 h were statistically significant (*P <0.05; n = 50 cells /animal; n = 4 animals).