Electron microscopic analysis of the liver. (A) The number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes are compared in CLP and sham animals. All data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Data were analyzed for statistical significance using the Mann-Whitney test. Increase in autolysosomes in the CLP group was statistically significant (*P <0.05; n = 3); mean increases in autophagosomes in CLP compared to sham did not reach statistical significance. NS, not significant. (B) Images of electron microscopy of the liver; a: Liver sample obtained from sham-operated mice. Organelles in the hepatocyte are generally intact and lysosomes do not contain discrete membrane structures, although the inhomogeneous electron-dense material often seen in (hetero)lyosomes most certainly represent end-stage degradation of phospholipid and other cytoplasmic materials (a material at the light microscopic level referred to as lipofuscin); b- e: CLP-operated mice. Double arrow heads identify complex structures bounded by two membranes (autophagosomes); arrow heads identify single membrane-bound lysosomal complexes with degraded organellar content (autolysosomes); e: the double arrow head identifies an autophagosome that clearly contains an injured mitochondrion.