Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induces autophagy in the liver of CLP model mice. For B- D and F, data are expressed as mean ± SD; data were analyzed for statistical significance using the Mann-Whitney test. (A) Western blotting analysis of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) in the liver. Sepsis was induced by CLP. Liver samples were prepared from sham-operated and CLP mice at each indicated time point post surgery. Results are representative of seven independent experiments. β-tubulin served as standard. (B) The ratio between the levels of LC3-II and LC3-I at each time point. *P <0.05, as compared to sham-operated group (n = 7/group). (C) The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I expression in various organs at 6 and 24 h after CLP. Values in CLP mice are expressed as fold-change relative to each sham-operated group. MLN, mesenteric lymph node. (D) LC3 mRNA expression in the liver at each time point assessed by real-time PCR. *P <0.05, as compared to sham-operated group (n = 7/group). (E) Confocal images of liver samples obtained from GFP-LC3 transgenic mice. Green-fluorescing GFP-LC3 dots were present in the cytosol indicated by the arrow head. (F) The number of GFP-LC3 dots per cellular confocal image was quantified. Differences in the number of GFP-LC3 dots in CLP mice at 6 h compared with sham-operated mice at 6 h and CLP mice at 24 h were statistically significant (*P <0.05; n = 50 cells /animal; n = 4 animals).