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Table 1 Patient baseline characteristics, ventilatory settings on study enrollment, and outcome

From: High-frequency oscillation and tracheal gas insufflation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and traumatic brain injury: an interventional physiological study

Age (years) 33.1 ± 11.7
Sex (male/female) 9/4
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 1.8
PBW (kg)a 68.6 ± 8.3
TBI etiology  
   Road traffic accident, no/total no (%) 12/13 (92.3)
   Fall from height >5 meters, no/total no (%) 1/13 (7.7)
Time from TBI (days)b 7.1 ± 1.8
Marshall classification of brain CT findings on hospital admission  
   Grade III: Diffuse injury and swelling, no./total no (%) 7/13 (53.9)
   Grade VI: Nonevacuated mass lesion >25 ml, no/total no (%)c, d 6/13 (46.2)
Simplified Acute Physiology Score IIe 48.2 ± 11.9
Thiopental infusion, no/total no (%)f, g 4/13 (30.1)
PaO2/inspired O2 fraction (mm Hg)f 85.9 ± 12.2
Fractional inspired O2f 0.84 ± 0.14
PaCO2 (mm Hg)f 42.4 ± 15.5
Arterial pHf 7.39 ± 0.10
Positive end-expiratory pressure (cm H2O)f 13.9 ± 2.9
Tidal volume (ml/kg PBW)f 8.6 ± 1.8
Respiratory rate (breaths/min)f 25.8 ± 6.5
Minute ventilation (L/min)f 14.5 ± 2.9
Inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratiof 1:2
End-inspiratory plateau airway pressure (cm H2O)f 33.5 ± 4.7
Mean airway pressure (cm H2O)f 21.1 ± 2.9
Oxygenation indexf, h 25.3 ± 3.2
Quasistatic respiratory compliance (ml/cm H2O)f, i 31.5 ± 6.1
Murray scoref 3.4 ± 0.4
Time from ARDS diagnosis (hours)k 34.9 ± 15.1
Pulmonary ARDS, no/total no (%)l 13/13 (100.0)
Outcome according to GOSE  
Upper good recovery (GOSE = 8), no/total no (%)m 5/13 (38.5)
Lower good recovery (GOSE = 7), no/total no (%)m 2/13 (15.4)
Death (GOSE = 1), no/total no (%)n 6/13 (46.2)
  1. Values are mean ± SD unless otherwise specified. TBI, traumatic brain injury; CT, computed tomography; PBW, predicted body weight; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; GOSE, Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended.
  2. aFor males, PBW was calculated as 50 + (height (cm) - 152.4) × 0.91; for females, 45.5 + (height(cm) - 152.4) × 0.91.
  3. bRefers to the time interval between TBI and study enrollment.
  4. cTwo patients with epidural hematoma and two patients with subdural hematoma were treated with neurosurgical evacuation within the first 3 hours after hospital admission; on follow-up CT, three patients had diffuse injury III, and one patient (also subjected to decompressive craniectomy) had diffuse injury IV findings.
  5. dTwo patients with intracerebral hemorrhage received a ventriculostomy; on follow-up CT, one patient had diffuse injury III, and one patient had diffuse injury II findings.
  6. eDetermined within 12 hours before study enrolment.
  7. fRecorded/determined within 10 minutes after study enrolment.
  8. gIn all four patients, a thiopental infusion of 6 mg/kg/h was started within 24 hours before study enrolment, because their intracranial pressure exceeded 30 mm Hg, despite the preceding combined use of propofol/midazolam anesthesia, hyperosmolar therapy, and increased minute ventilation.
  9. hCalculated as mean airway pressure divided by the PaO2/inspired O2 fraction, and then multiplied by 100.
  10. iCalculated as tidal volume divided by the difference between the end-inspiratory and end-expiratory plateau airway pressures.
  11. kRefers to the time interval between establishment of ARDS diagnosis and study enrolment.
  12. lEleven patients had severe, bilateral ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 5), or Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 4), or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 2). Four patients had bilateral pulmonary contusions, and one of them also had a new, unilateral area of consolidation with air-bronchogram, also attributed to ventilator-associated pneumonia with Acinetobacter baumannii. One patient also received a massive blood transfusion within the first 48 hours after hospital admission.
  13. mDetermined at approximately 3 months after hospital discharge; data originate from patient follow-up records of the University-affiliated Department of Neurosurgery of Evaggelismos Hospital.
  14. nCorresponds to death in the intensive care unit within 6 to 16 days after study enrolment (see also Table S2 in Additional file 1).