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Table 2 Nutritional outcomes

From: Small bowel feeding and risk of pneumonia in adult critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

Trial Nutritional assessment outcomes
  Outcome Small bowel Gastric
Montecalvo et al. 1992 [20] Volume of feeding delivered (mean, SD)
Mean calories delivered per day (Mean, SD)
Daily goal caloric intake (Mean, SD)
(1209 +/- 344 ml/day)
(1466 +/- 398 Kcal/day)
(61 +/- 17%)
(963 +/- 525 ml/day)*
(1182 +/- 603 Kcal/day)*
(46.9 +/- 25.9%)*
Kortbeek et al. 1999 [21] Time to tolerate full feeds (mean, SD) 34 +/- 7.1 hours 43.8 +/- 22.6 hours*
Kearns et al. 2000 [22] Daily calories (mean, SEM)
Daily calories (mean, SEM)
Proportion of energy delivered (mean, SEM)
18 +/- 1 kcal/Kg/day
1157 +/- 86 Kcal/day
69 +/- 7%
12 +/- 2 kcal/Kg/day*
812 +/- 122 Kcal/day*
47 +/- 7% *
Boivin and Levy 2001 [29] Time to achieve goal rate (mean) 33 hours 32 hours
Esparza et al. 2001 [24] Average daily percentage of goal feeding 66% 64%
Day et al. 2001 [23] Protein intake (mean, SD)
Delivered calories at day 10 (Mean, SD)
Proportion of delivered calories (Mean, SD)
105 +/- 22g
2147 +/- 625 Kcal
76 +/- 39%
91 +/- 27g
1491 +/- 768 Kcal
86 +/- 23%
Heyland et al. 2001 [25] No nutritional outcomes reported N/A N/A
Davies et al. 2002 [31] Time to start feeds (mean, SEM) 81.2 +/- 13.4 hours 54.4 +/- 4.9 hours
Montejo et al. 2002 [26] Daily caloric intake (mean, SD) 1286 +/- 344 kcal/day 1237 +/- 342 kcal/day
Neumann and DeLegge 2002 [27] Time to start feeding from initial attempt
(mean, SD)
27 +/- 22.6 hours 11.2 +/- 11 hours*
Eatock et al. 2005 [32] No difference in time to start feeding between groups N/A N/A
Kumar et al. 2006 [35] Serum pre-albumin (Mean, SD)
All patients achieved the goal of 1800 Kcal within 7 days of feeding start (no difference)
11.10 +/- 5.28 mg/dL 17.55+/-4.50 mg/dL (P = 0.002)
Hsu et al. 2009 [33] Daily caloric intake (Mean, SD)
Time to goal rate (Mean, SD)
Proportion of daily goal calorie feeds (Mean, SD)
27.1 +/- 7.6 Kcal/Kg/day
32.4 +/- 27.1 hours
95 +/- 5%
23.5 +/- 8.8 Kcal/Kg/day*
54.5 +/- 51.4 hours*
83 +/- 6%*
White et al. 2009 [37] Average daily energy deficit (median, IQR)
Time to reach goal from initiation of feeds (median, IQR)
79 (2-340) Kcal
4.1 (3.8-5.4) hours
149 (74-369) Kcal
4.1 (3.6-5.3) hours
Acosta-Escribano et al. 2010 [30] Proportion of mean efficacious volume 92 +/- 7% 84 +/- 15%*
Zeng et al. 2010 [28] No nutritional outcomes reported. N/A N/A
Davies et al. 2012 [10] Daily energy delivered, (mean, SD)
Proportion of energy requirement delivered for study period (mean, SD)
1497 +/- 521 Kcal
72% +/- 21%
1444 +/- 485 Kcal
71% +/- 19%
Huang et al. 2012 [34] Proportion of energy intake (mean, SD) 90.4 +/- 20.5% 76.2 +/- 24.9%*
Singh et al. 2012 [36] No nutritional outcomes reported. N/A N/A
  1. P<0.05
  2. SD, standard deviation; SEM, standard error of the mean; IQR, interquartile range; N/A, not available.