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Table 1 Demographic profile, clinical characteristic and clinical outcome

From: The urine output definition of acute kidney injury is too liberal

Variable Cohort (n= 725) No AKI (n= 203) AKI (n= 522) P value
Age (years) 59 ± 18 53 ± 17 62 ± 17 <0.0001
Gender (male) 455 (62.7) 121 (59.6) 334 (63.9) 0.27
Weight (kg) 79 ± 19 74 ± 18 80 ± 19 <0.0001
Height (cm) 170 ± 10 170 ± 10 170 ± 11 0.87
APACHE II score 18 ± 7 16 ± 6 19 ± 7 <0.0001
SAPS II 40 ± 16 33 ± 14 43 ± 16 <0.0001
Vasopressor usage 366 (50.5) 84 (41.4) 282 (54.0) 0.002
Hypotension (MAP <60 mmHg) 384 (53.0) 97 (47.8) 287 (55.0) 0.08
Diuretic usage 28 (3.9) 5 (2.5) 23 (4.4) 0.22
Baseline plasma creatinine (µmol/l) 84 (71 to 102) 78 (69 to 89) 88 (72 to 107) <0.0001
Baseline creatinine selection criterion     0.28
   Pre-ICU 7 days to 1 year 466 (64.3) 122 (60.1) 344 (65.9)  
   Final 90-day follow up 195 (26.9) 59 (29.1) 136 (26.1)  
   First ICU admission 64 (8.8) 22 (10.8) 42 (8.0)  
Primary diagnosis class     0.01
   Cardiovascular 70 (9.7) 12 (5.9) 58 (11.1)  
   Endocrine/metabolic 11 (1.5) 0 (0) 11 (2.1)  
   Gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary/pancreas 20 (2.8) 7 (3.4) 13 (2.5)  
   Haematology/oncology/immunology 2 (0.3) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.2)  
   Infective 3 (0.4) 2 (1.0) 1 (0.2)  
   Renal 11 (1.5) 2 (1.0) 9 (1.7)  
   Neurological 67 (9.2) 22 (10.8) 45 (8.6)  
   Respiratory 145 (20.0) 48 (23.6) 97 (18.6)  
   Trauma 64 (8.8) 24 (11.8) 40 (7.7)  
   Postoperative surgical 259 (35.7) 61 (30.0) 198 (37.9)  
   Cardiac surgery 152 (20.9) 30 (14.8) 122 (23.4)  
   Other surgery 107 (14.8) 31 (15.3) 76 (14.6)  
   Sepsis or septic shock 44 (6.1) 11 (5.4) 33 (6.3)  
   Miscellaneous 29 (4.0) 13 (6.4) 16 (3.1)  
Baseline co-morbidities     
   Hypertension 191 (26.3) 40 (19.7) 151 (28.9) 0.01
   Cardiac failure 16 (2.2) 3 (1.5) 13 (2.5) 0.45
   Ischemic heart disease 133 (18.3) 26 (12.8) 107 (20.5) 0.02
   Chronic obstructive airways disease 54 (7.4) 12 (5.9) 42 (8.0) 0.33
   Asthma 59 (8.1) 23 (11.3) 36 (6.9) 0.05
   Diabetes mellitus 106 (14.6) 16 (7.9) 90 (17.2) 0.001
   Kidney disease 56 (7.7) 11 (5.4) 45 (8.6) 0.15
   Malignancy 62 (8.6) 15 (7.4) 47 (9.0) 0.49
   Connective tissue/inflammatory disease 142 (19.6) 45 (22.2) 97 (18.6) 0.28
Dialysis in the ICU 41 (5.7) 0 (0) 41 (7.9) <0.0001
Hospital mortality 100 (13.8) 19 (9.4) 81 (15.5) 0.03
Mortality at 1 year 151 (20.8) 30 (14.8) 121 (23.2) 0.01
Mechanical ventilation 562 (77.5) 159 (78.3) 449 (86.0) 0.01
Length of MV (hours) 23 (5 to 83) 18 (5 to 53) 25 (5 to 92) 0.02
Length of ICU stay (hours) 31 (21 to 72) 45 (31 to 95) 62 (39 to 148) 0.001
Length of hospital stay (days) 11 (6 to 20) 12 (6 to 22) 14 (8 to 25) 0.007
  1. Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation, n (%), or median (lower quartile to upper quartile). AKI, acute kidney injury (by the creatinine definition or the urine output definition); APACHE, Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score; MAP, mean arterial pressure; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score.