IκBα dose-dependently modulated the inflammatory response to prolonged pneumonia. Overexpression of IκBα dose-dependently increased BAL interleukin-1β (A) and TNF-α (B) concentrations compared with vehicle. No effect of IκBα was seen on interleukin-6 (C) or CINC-1 (D) concentrations. IκBα dose-dependently increased BAL IL-10 (E), and KGF concentrations (F). These effects were greatest with the highest IκBα (5 × 1010 particles) dose. The gray bars represent sham (uninfected) animals. Vehicle, animals that received intratracheal vehicle alone; IκBα 5 × 109, animals that received 5 × 109 AAV6 particles encoding IκBα; IκBα 1 × 1010, animals that received 1 × 1010 AAV6 particles encoding IκBα; IκBα 5 × 1010, animals that received 5 × 1010 AAV6 particles encoding IκBα. *Significantly different from vehicle group (P < 0.05, ANOVA).