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Table 3 ATLS responses to initial fluid resuscitation

From: Management of bleeding and coagulopathy following major trauma: an updated European guideline

  Rapid response Transient response Minimal or no response
Vital signs Return to normal Transient improvement, recurrence of decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate Remain abnormal
Estimated blood loss Minimal (10% to 20%) Moderate and ongoing (20% to 40%) Severe (>40%)
Need for more crystalloid Low Low to moderate Moderate as bridge to transfusion
Need for blood Low Moderate to high Immediate
Blood preparation Type and crossmatch Type-specific Emergency blood release
Need for operative intervention Possibly Likely Highly likely
Early presence of surgeon Yes Yes Yes
  1. Table reprinted with permission from the American College of Surgeons [57]. *Isotonic crystalloid solution, 2,000 ml in adults; 20 ml/kg in children.