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Table 2 ATLS classification of blood loss* based on initial patient presentation

From: Management of bleeding and coagulopathy following major trauma: an updated European guideline

  Class I Class II Class III Class IV
Blood loss (ml) Up to 750 750 to 1,500 1,500 to 2,000 >2,000
Blood loss (% blood volume) Up to 15% 15% to 30% 30% to 40% >40%
Pulse rate (bpm) <100 100 to 120 120 to 140 >140
Systolic blood pressure Normal Normal Decreased Decreased
Pulse pressure (mmHg) Normal or increased Decreased Decreased Decreased
Respiratory rate 14 to 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 >35
Urine output (ml/h) >30 20 to 30 5 to 15 Negligible
CNS/mental status Slightly anxious Mildly anxious Anxious, confused Confused, lethargic
Initial fluid replacement Crystalloid Crystalloid Crystalloid and blood Crystalloid and blood
  1. Table reprinted with permission from the American College of Surgeons [57]. *for a 70 kg man.