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Table 3 Factors associated with NIV failure on univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Clinical outcomes of patients requiring ventilatory support in Brazilian intensive care units: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study

  Univariate comparison Logistic regression
Characteristic NIV success
( n = 70)
NIV failure
( n = 81)
P-v alue
(univariate)
OR (CI 95%) P- value
(multivariate)
General      
Age - yo 63 (48 to 80) 67 (43 to 78) 0.826   
Male gender - n (%) 34 (49) 45 (56) 0.392   
Admission SAPS 3 Score (points) 59 (50 to 68) 62 (55 to 69) 0.180   
SOFA Score on Day 1 (points) 5 (3 to 7) 7 (4 to 8) < 0.001   
SOFA Score excluding respiratory component (points) 3 (1 to 5) 4 (4 to 7) 0.001   
SOFA excluding respiratory component ≥ 4 points 34 (48) 65 (80) < 0.001 1.20 (1.05 to 1.34) 0.009
Charlson Comorbidity Index (points)      
   0 21 (30) 25 (31) Ref   
   1 to 2 32 (46) 38 (47) 0.794   
   > 2 17 (24) 18 (22) 0.782   
Admission diagnoses    0.562   
Pneumonia - n (%) 17 (24) 18 (22)    
Neurological - n (%) 13 (19) 19 (23)    
Non-pulmonary sepsis - n (%) 9 (13) 10 (12)    
Asthma/COPD - n (%) 4 (6) 3 (4)    
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema - n (%) 5 (7) 7 (9)    
Extracranial trauma - n (%) 4 (6) 2 (3)    
Hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock - n (%) 5 (7) 5 (6)    
Aspirative syndromes - n (%) 4 (7) 3 (4)    
Others - n (%) 9 (13) 14 (17)    
Respiratory data      
Inspiratory pressure first day - cmH2O 12 (10 to 15) 12 (11 to 15) 0.956   
Expiratory pressure first day - cmH2O 8 (8 to 10) 8 (6 to 10) 0.891   
PaO2/FiO2 ratio first day 230 (185 to 300) 200 (150 to 300) 0.271   
ARDS - n (%) 17 (31) 38 (69) 0.004 2.31 (1.10 to 4.82) 0.026
Length of NIV - days 3 (2 to 4) 1 (0 to 2) < 0.001   
Day of NIV failure --- 1 (0 to 2) ---   
Tracheostomy - n (%) 2 (3) 16 (20) 0.007   
ICU variables      
Vasopressors - n (%) 16 (23) 50 (62) < 0.001   
Cumulative fluid balance ≥ 2 L (72 h) - n (%) 36 (51) 59 (73) 0.007 2.09 (1.02 to 4.30) 0.045
Outcome      
ICU mortality - n (%) 7 (10) 38 (47) < 0.001   
Hospital Mortality - n (%) 13 (19) 41 (51) < 0.001   
ICU LOS - days 7 (4 to 8) 13 (7 to 23) < 0.001   
Hospital LOS - days 14 (9 to 26) 21 (13 to 30) 0.071   
  1. Data are expressed as median (p25 to p75) or number (%). Abbreviations: ARDS, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; COPD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; LOS, Length-of-stay; NIV, Non-invasive ventilation; RRT, Renal Replacement Therapy; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Area under receiver operating curve for NIV failure (95% CI): 0.72 (0.64 to 0.80), P < 0.001. Hosmer-Lemeshow Χ2: 2.555, P = 0.768.