One-hour (peak) plasma TNF-α concentrations ( n = 8 except controls and D2 ( n = 7 each)) and 4 hours ( n = 8 except D0.5, D1, and D2 ( n = 7, 6, and 5, respectively)) wing laparotomy and endotoxemia, experiment 1. Dopexamine was associated with smaller increases in all groups at 4 hours, and in D2 at 1 hour, compared with controls. Data are presented as mean (SEM) for clarity at both time points. However, not all data from 1 hour were normally distributed; the statistical analysis reflects this. One hour (t1): Kruskal-Wallis test (post hoc Mann-Whitney tests, *P < 0.05, ***P < 0.001 compared with controls). Four hours (t4): One-way ANOVA (Bonferroni posttests *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 compared with controls).