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Table 1 Characteristics of patients without acute kidney injury (AKI), with transientAKI, and with persistent AKI

From: Diagnostic accuracy of early urinary index changes in differentiating transient frompersistent acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: multicenter cohortstudy

  No AKI (n= 97) Transient AKI (n= 54) Persistent AKI (n= 93) P valuea
Patient characteristics     
   Male gender 56 (57.7) 34 (62.9) 66 (71.0) 0.16
   Age (years) 60 (49 to 70) 65 (52 to 74) 67 (56 to 76) 0.02
   Knaus C or D 30 (30.9) 18 (35.3) 31 (36.0) 0.73
   LOD score at admission 4 (2 to 7) 5 (3 to 8) 6 (4 to 9) 0.006
   SAPS II score at admission 41 (31 to 54) 43 (34 to 52) 46 (36 to 59) 0.06
   Baseline plasma creatinine (μmol/l) 55 (45 to 65) 56 (44 to 69) 65 (53 to 89) 0.0006
Risk factors for AKI     
   Chronic heart failure 11 (11.3) 11 (20.3) 18 (19.4) 0.22
   Chronic kidney diseaseb 2 (2.1) 1 (1.9) 12 (12.9) 0.02
Sepsis 36 (38.7) 32 (60.4) 48 (55.2) 0.02
   Aminoglycosides 6 (6.7) 7 (14.6) 12 (14.0) 0.22
   Ionidated contrast agents 37 (41.1) 11 (22.9) 22 (25.3) 0.03
   Diabetes mellitus 8 (8.3) 15 (27.8) 24 (25.8) 0.002
Reason for ICU admission     
   Acute respiratory failure 24 (24.7) 17 (31.5) 19 (20.5) 0.32
   Coma 36 (37.1) 8 (14.8) 15 (16.1) 0.0006
   Sepsis/shock 13 (13.4) 19 (35.2) 43 (46.3) < 0.0001
Treatments     
   Need for vasoactive drugs 80 (51.6) 25 (46.3) 55 (59.1) 0.29
   Mechanical ventilation 79 (81.4) 30 (55.6) 55 (59.4) 0.0006
   Renal replacement therapy 1 (1.0) 0 13 (14.0) < 0.0001
   Diuretics 30 (30.9) 17 (31.5) 33 (35.5) 0.78
Renal function at admission     
   Diuresis (ml/kg/hour) 1.29 (0.69 to 1.99) 1.14 (0.73 to 2.00) 0.79 (0.48 to 1.22) 0.0005
   Plasma urea (mmol/l) 5.9 (4.4 to 8.1) 10.8 (7.3 to 14.9) 14.1 (7.6 to 25.2) < 0.0001
   Plasma creatinine (μmol/l) 64 (53 to 80) 111 (76 to 170) 139 (95 to 253) < 0.0001
Urinary indices     
   FeNa (%) 0.7 (0.2 to 1.7) 0.8 (0.3 to 2.7) 1.1 (0.4 to 2.8) 0.03
   FeUrea (%) 35 (24 to 45) 29 (21 to 39) 29 (21 to 36) 0.03
   U/P urea 23 (14 to 34) 11 (7 to 22) 10 (4 to 19) < 0.0001
   U/P creatinine 70 (39 to 129) 37 (17 to 98) 38 (17 to 74) < 0.0001
Outcome     
   ICU mortality 22 (22.7) 12 (22.2) 21 (22.5) 0.99
   Hospital mortality 25 (25.8) 17 (31.5) 26 (28.0) 0.56
  1. Results reported as median (interquartile range) or n (%). FeNa,fractional excretion of sodium ([U/P sodium]/[U/P creatinine])×100;FeUrea, fractional excretion of urea ([U/P urea]/[U/P creatinine])×100;LOD, Logistic Organ Dysfunction score (can range from 0 to 22); SAPS,Simplified Acute Physiology Score; U/P, urinary/plasma. aP values are for comparisons across the three patient groups.bChronic renal failure was defined as creatinine clearance beforeICU admission < 60 ml/minute. Bold data represent variables that differstatistically across groups of patients.