Skip to main content

Table 2 Patients classified by base deficit (classes I to IV): traditional vital signs as presented at emergency department admission and at the scene

From: Renaissance of base deficit for the initial assessment of trauma patients: a base deficit-based classification for hypovolemic shock developed on data from 16,305 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU®

  Class I Class II Class III Class IV
  BD ≤ 2.0
(no shock)
BD > 2.0 to 6.0
(mild)
BD > 6.0 to 10.0
(moderate)
BD > 10.0
(severe)
Vital signs     
SBP at the scene, mm Hg 129.8 (28.9) 120.7 (32.2) 108.6 (35.1) 87.2 (45.4)
SBP at ED, mm Hg 132.6 (26.3) 124.6 (28.0) 112.7 (30.7) 94.8 (40.4)
HR at the scene, beats per minute 90.9 (19.3) 93.9 (22.6) 98.3 (27) 93.6 (41)
HR at ED, beats per minute 86.3 (17.8) 89.8 (20.3) 95.9 (22.5) 97.2 (32.4)
SI at the scene, beats per minute 0.74 (0.26) 0.83 (0.34) 0.98 (0.47) 1.17 (0.55)
SI at ED, beats per minute 0.68 (0.22) 0.76 (0.27) 0.93 (0.41) 1.17 (0.69)
Median GCS score at the scene (IQR), points 14 (10-15) 13 (6-15) 10 (3-15) 4 (3-12)
Median GCS score at ED (IQR), points 14 (3-15) 3 (3-15) 3 (3-11) 3 (3-3)
Intubation rate, number (percentage) 2,732 (40.2) 3,319 (60.5) 1,417 (73.9) 724 (83.4)
  1. Values are presented as mean (standard deviation) unless indicated otherwise. Cohort consisted of 16,305 patients. P < 0.001 for all parameters. BD, base deficit; ED, emergency department; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; HR, heart rate; IQR, interquartile range; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SI, shock index.
\