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Table 1 Patients classified by base deficit (classes I to IV): demographics, injury mechanism, severity of injury, and outcome

From: Renaissance of base deficit for the initial assessment of trauma patients: a base deficit-based classification for hypovolemic shock developed on data from 16,305 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU®

  Class I Class II Class III Class IV
  BD ≤ 2.0
(no shock)
BD > 2.0 to 6.0
(mild)
BD > 6.0 to 10.0
(moderate)
BD > 10.0
(severe)
Demographics     
   Total number (percentage) 7,583 (46.5) 5,831 (35.8) 1,999 (12.3) 892 (5.5)
   Male, number (percentage) 5,622 (74.7) 4,184 (72.3) 1,382 (69.6) 607 (68.4)
   Mean age (SD), years 46 (20.2) 43.8 (19.7) 44.4 (19.5) 45.8 (19.7)
   Blunt trauma, number (percentage) 7,088 (96) 5,436 (94.4) 1,869 (94.1) 816 (92.3)
Injury severity     
   Mean ISS (SD), points 19.1 (11.9) 24.0 (13.3) 29.5 (16) 36.7 (17.6)
   Mean NISS (SD), points 24.2 (15) 29.9 (16.1) 35.5 (17.7) 42.9 (18.5)
   Mean RISC score (SD), points 10.3 (18.1) 14.4 (22.4) 24.4 (28.6) 53.3 (35.3)
   AIS head ≥ 3 points, number (percentage) 3,065 (40.4) 2,711 (46.5) 1,039 (52) 526 (59)
   AIS thorax ≥ 3 points, number (percentage) 2,826 (37.3) 2,811 (48.2) 1,131 (56.6) 577 (64.7)
   AIS abdomen ≥ 3 points, number (percentage) 819 (10.8) 939 (16.1) 520 (26.0) 296 (33.2)
   AIS pelvis/extremities ≥ 3 points, number (percentage) 1,956 (25.8) 2,071 (35.5) 846 (42.3) 419 (47.0)
Outcome     
   Mortality, number (percentage) 564 (7.4) 721 (12.4) 478 (23.9) 459 (51.5)
   Mean hospital LOS (SD), days 18,3 (19.2) 23.6 (25.2) 24.7 (27) 20.1 (31.2)
   Mean ICU LOS (SD), days 7.8 (10.7) 11.3 (13.3) 13.9 (15.3) 12.8 (18.0)
   Mean ventilator days (SD) 4.8 (8.9) 7.7 (11.5) 9.9 (12.8) 10.1 (15.5)
   Multiple organ failure, number (percentage) 807 (12.2) 1,064 (20.2) 516 (29.4) 294 (43.3)
   Sepsis, number (percentage) 400 (6.0) 566 (10.5) 295 (16.3) 126 (18.0)
  1. Cohort consisted of 16,305 patients. P < 0.001 for all parameters. AIS, abbreviated injury scale; BD, base deficit; ICU, intensive care unit; ISS, injury severity score; LOS, length of stay; NISS, new injury severity score; RISC, Revised Injury Severity Classification; SD, standard deviation.
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