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Table 1 Monitoring parameters and related artifacts

From: Patient monitoring alarms in the ICU and in the operating room

Signal Artifact source Parameter
Ventilatory alarms   
   Pulse oximetry Movement
Injection of contrast dye
Interruption of blood-flow by non-invasive blood pressure
Ambient light
Oxygen saturation
Pulse frequency
   Capnography Occlusion of CO2-line (by kinking or built up fluid)
Ventilator circuit leakage
Atmospheric pressure variations
Dead space in measurement circuit
End-tidal CO2
Inspired CO2
Respiratory rate
Hemodynamic Alarms   
   EKG Electrosurgical interference
Power-line interference
Movement artifacts (patient movement, positioning)
Electrode instability or electrode distortion
EMG/neuromonitoring interference
Incorrect connection or lead contact
Abnormally tall T-waves mistaken as QRS-complex
MRI interference
Heart rate,
Arrhythmia detection
   Non-invasive blood pressure Movement
Inadequate size or cuff position
Compression of cuff by external forces (surgeon or equipment pressing against the cuff
Kinked cuff tubing and leaking cuff bladder
Systolic, diastolic blood pressure
Mean arterial pressure
Other Alarms   
   Temperature Dislocated sensor Temperature
  1. EKG: electrocardiogram, EMG: electromyogram, MRI: magnetic resonance imaging, CO2: carbon dioxide