Study design and number of patients in cohorts. 1Risk factors included sepsis, hypotension, major trauma, hemorrhage, radiocontrast exposure, or major surgery or requirement for ICU admission. All enrolled patients were in the ICU. 2Risk factors included hypotension, sepsis, IV antibiotics, radiocontrast exposure, increased intra-abdominal pressure with acute decompensated heart failure, or severe trauma as the primary reason for ICU admission and likely to be in the ICU for 48 hours. 3Critical illness was defined as admission to an ICU and sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score  ≥2 for respiratory or ≥1 for cardiovascular. 4Initially patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) stage 1 were also excluded but this was changed at the first protocol amendment. 5A total of 728 patients had test results for urinary biomarkers. A total of 726 patients had test results for plasma biomarkers.