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Table 1 Hemodynamic and respiratory variables for the seven steps of measures between the Normocapnia (n = 6) and the Hypercapnia (n = 6) groups

From: Moderate and prolonged hypercapnic acidosis may protect against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction in healthy piglet: an in vivo study

  H0 H12 H24 H36 H48 H60 H72
Minute ventilation (L/min)        
Normocapnia 5.9 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 0.6 5.1 ± 0.6 4.9 ± 0.5 4.7 ± 0.4 4.8 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 0.8
Hypercapnia 4.6 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 0.2 4.8 ± 0.3 4.2 ± 0.2 4.8 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.2
Tidal volume (ml)        
Normocapnia 240 ± 40 220 ± 20 230 ± 20 230 ± 25 225 ± 25 230 ± 25 205 ± 10
Hypercapnia 230 ± 22 225 ± 15 235 ± 30 240 ± 15 235 ± 30 230 ± 20 240 ± 20
Respiratory rate (c/min)        
Normocapnia 24 ± 3 20 ± 3 22 ± 2 22 ± 2 21 ± 1 21 ± 1 20 ± 1
Hypercapnia 20 ± 6 19 ± 5 19 ± 4 20 ± 3 18 ± 6 19 ± 4 18 ± 3
Peak pressure (cm H2O)        
Normocapnia 22 ± 1 23 ± 2 22 ± 1 21 ± 3 23 ± 2 22 ± 3 23 ± 3
Hypercapnia 22 ± 3 21 ± 2 20 ± 2 22 ± 2 20 ± 3 20 ± 3 20 ± 2
Plateau pressure (cm H2O)        
Normocapnia 14 ± 2 14 ± 3 13 ± 2 14 ± 3 13 ± 2 14 ± 4 15 ± 2
Hypercapnia 13 ± 1 14 ± 3 12 ± 3 13 ± 2 12 ± 4 13 ± 3 13 ± 3
pH        
Normocapnia 7.52 ± 0.02 7.47 ± 0.06 7.46 ± 0.04 7.45 ± 0.01 7.44 ± 0.04 7.47 ± 0.04 7.44 ± 0.05
Hypercapnia 7.43 ± 0.07 7.31 ± 0.09ab 7.29 ± 0.05ab 7.30 ± 0.06ab 7.27 ± 0.07ab 7.25 ± 0.08ab 7.22 ± 0.04ab
PaO2 (mm Hg)        
Normocapnia 99 ± 8 97 ± 6 95 ± 5 98 ± 3 95 ± 6 97 ± 5 101 ± 6
Hypercapnia 147 ± 8a 148 ± 5a 149 ± 4a 132 ± 4a 115 ± 8a 146 ± 6a 110 ± 9
PaCO2 (mm Hg)        
Normocapnia 33 ± 6 39 ± 3 41 ± 3 40 ± 3 39 ± 3 38 ± 2 37 ± 3
Hypercapnia 44 ± 7a 65 ± 8ab 70 ± 3ab 77 ± 8ab 73 ± 10ab 66 ± 7ab 73 ± 4ab
SaO2 (%)        
Normocapnia 98 ± 2 99 ± 2 97 ± 3 100 ± 2 98 ± 2 97 ± 3 96 ± 4
Hypercapnia 99 ± 2 98 ± 1 97 ± 4 99 ± 2 99 ± 4 98 ± 3 99 ± 3
Plasma bicarbonate (mM)        
Normocapnia 27 ± 4 29 ± 4 29 ± 5 29 ± 3 27 ± 3 30 ± 2 26 ± 2
Hypercapnia 28 ± 4 35 ± 5ab 33 ± 3ab 35 ± 2ab 34 ± 5ab 32 ± 4b 32 ± 5ab
Heart rate (c/min)        
Normocapnia 101 ± 10 106 ± 12 107 ± 12 103 ± 10 97 ± 8 101 ± 14 101 ± 15
Hypercapnia 93 ± 18 96 ± 27 91 ± 26 118 ± 26ab 123 ± 12ab 118 ± 12ab 114 ± 16ab
Mean blood pressure (mm Hg)        
Normocapnia 75 ± 7 80 ± 10 88 ± 7 86 ± 9 84 ± 13 83 ± 13 88 ± 14
Hypercapnia 83 ± 15 72 ± 14 76 ± 16 87 ± 18 86 ± 22 79 ± 15 77 ± 15
Cardiac Output (l/min)        
Normocapnia 2.2 ± 0.3 2.7 ± 0.3 2.8 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 0.2 2.7 ± 0.2 2.7 ± 0.2 2.7 ± 0.3
Hypercapnia 2.8 ± 0.4 2.9 ± 0.6 3.1 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.5ab 3.3 ± 0.7ab 3.2 ± 0.6ab 3.4 ± 0.7ab
Stroke volume (ml)        
Normocapnia 22 ± 7 27 ± 10 27 ± 11 28 ± 8 29 ± 10 27 ± 11 26 ± 12
Hypercapnia 28 ± 8 29 ± 12 32 ± 9 28 ± 14 27 ± 8 27 ± 10 30 ± 8
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. aP < 0.05 between Normocapnia and Hypercapnia groups; bP < 0.05 intragroup difference between time considered and baseline. PaO2, arterial pressure of oxygen; PaCO2, arterial pressure of carbon dioxide; SaO2, oxygen saturation of arterial blood.