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Table 1 Characteristics of included meta-analyses.

From: Small studies may overestimate the effect sizes in critical care meta-analyses: a meta-epidemiological study

  Intervention No. of studies II Event rate in control group (%) Large trials (n, %) Effect size of odds ratio (95% CI) Heterogeneity (I2)
Abroug F 2011 [9] Prone ventilation 7 37.3 3 (42.9) 0.91 (0.75, 1.1) 0%
Afshari A 2007 [10] Antithrombin III 20 39.9 1 (5) 0.96 (0.89, 1.03) 0%
Afshari A 2011 [11] Inhaled nitric oxide for ARDS 14 38.6 3 (21.4) 1.06 (0.93, 1.22) 0%
Annane D 2009 [12] Corticosteroids 20 36.4 4 (20) 0.87 (0.74, 1.01) 44%
Augustes R 2011 [13] Sedation interruption 5 37.2 1 (20) 0.84 (0.58, 1.21) 19.4%
Barkun AN 2012 [14] PPI for stress-related mucosal bleeding 8 18.7 3 (37.5) 1.19 (0.84, 1.68) 0%
Blackwood B 2011 [15] Weaning protocol 10 14.7 5 (50) 0.98 (0.48, 2.02) 57%
Burns KE 2011 [16] Volume-limited ventilation 10 42.5 2 (20) 0.84 (0.7, 1.0) 43.1%
Delaney AP 2011 [17] Albumin for resuscitation 17 33.8 1 (5.9) 0.82 (0.67, 1.0) 0%
Kopterides P 2010 [18] Procalcitonin-guided 6 22.6 1 (16.7) 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) 0%
Landoni G 2010 [19] Levosimendan 27 22.4 3 (11.1) 0.74 (0.62, 0.89) 11.3%
Laupland KB 2007 [20] Polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin 14 41.8 2 (14.3) 0.66 (0.53, 0.83) 53.8%
Marik PE 2008 [21] Immunonutrition 24 25.8 5 (20.8) 0.85 (0.64, 1.13) 44%
Phoenix SI 2009 [22] High PEEP 6 38.5 3 (50) 0.87 (0.78, 0.96) 0%
Pileggi C 2011 [23] Selective decontamination of the digestive or respiratory tract 11 NR 6 (54.5) 1.1 (0.98, 1.24) 0%
Puskarich MA 2009 [24] Glucose-insulin-potassium infusion 23 9 5 (21.7) 1.02 (0.93, 1.11) 0%
Serpa Neto A 2012 [25] Vasopressin/terlipressin 9 50.3 1 (11.1) 0.87 (0.79, 0.96) 0%
Shah MR 2005 [26] Pulmonary artery catheter 13 32.7 4 (30.8) 1.04 (0.9, 1.2) 0%
Shan L 2011 [27] Intensive insulin therapy 5 34.7 2 (40) 0.98 (0.82, 1.16) 0%
Siempos II 2010 [28] Probiotics 4 19.5 1 (25) 0.75 (0.47, 1.21) 0%
Tan JA 2010 [29] Dexmedetomidine 16 8.7 3 (18.8) 0.85 (0.64, 1.17) 0%
Vasu TS 2012 [30] Dopamine/norepinephrine 6 54.0 2 (33.3) 0.43 (0.26, 0.69) 65.4%
Visser J 2011 [31] Micronutrient supplementation 10 28.8 1 (10) 0.78 (0.67, 0.90) 0%
Wang F 2011 [32] Timing of tracheotomy 7 33.0 2 (28.6) 0.86 (0.65, 1.13) 45%
Wang F 2012 [33] Subglottic secretion drainage 9 22.1 3 (33.3) 0.97 (0.84, 1.12) 0%
Zarychanski R 2009 [34] Hydroxyethyl starch resuscitation 10 31.1 1 (10) 1.07 (0.85, 1.34) 0%
Zhongheng Z 2010 [35] Dose of CRRT 6 45.4 5 (83.3) 0.91 (0.77, 1.08) 75%
  1. IIOnly studies that reported mortality were included.