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Table 5 Association of in-hospital mortality and drugs or electrocardiogram findings at hyperkalemia diagnosis

From: Severe hyperkalemia requiring hospitalization: predictors of mortality

  Number (percentage) Univariate analysis Multiple logistic
regression analysisa
  In-hospital mortality group Survival group OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Modifiable factors
Drug-induced hyperkalemiab
   ACEi 7 (2.5) 53 (8.3) 0.28 (0.13-0.63) 0.002   
   ARB 19 (6.7) 146 (22.8) 0.24 (0.15-0.40) < 0.001   
   Beta blocker 17 (6.0) 107 (16.7) 0.32 (0.19-0.54) < 0.001 0.31 (0.13-0.74) 0.009
   K+-sparing diuretics 20 (7.1) 88 (13.8) 0.48 (0.29-0.79) 0.004   
   NSAIDs 2 (0.7) 20 (3.1) 0.22 (0.05-0.95) 0.043   
   Digoxin 9 (3.2) 16 (2.5) 1.28 (0.56-2.94) 0.558   
K supplementsb 38 (13.4) 91 (14.2) 0.94 (0.62-1.41) 0.749   
Non-modifiable factors     
ECG findings pertinent to hyperkalemia
   No changes 23 (8.7) 169 (41.3) Reference    
   Atypical findings 45 (17.0) 97 (23.7) 3.37 (1.93-5.88) < 0.001   
   Typical findings 196 (74.2) 143 (35.0) 9.36 (5.80-15.10) < 0.001   
  1. aCovariables: gender, age, serum K+ level, the differences between the admission and highest serum K+ levels, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, malignancy, history of recurrence, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), beta blocker, K+-sparing diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), infection, volume depletion, bleeding, poor compliance, transfusion, new-onset acute kidney injury, acute kidney injury on chronic kidney disease, multi-organ failure at the time of diagnosis, the type of admission, onset of hyperkalemia, symptoms pertinent to hyperkalemia, level of support I, and intensive care unit treatment. bThe following were entered as 'yes-no' variables: underlying diseases; coexisting medical conditions; drug-induced hyperkalemia; potassium supplements; the presence of multiple organ failure at admission or at hyperkalemia diagnosis; hyperkalemia diagnosis at the time of cardiac arrest; and improvement in hyperkalemia. The frequency, proportion, and odds ratios (ORs) of these variables were determined by comparing 'yes' variables to the 'no' variables. CI, confidence interval; ECG, electrocardiogram.