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Table 2 Management and clinical outcomes of severe hyperkalemia

From: Severe hyperkalemia requiring hospitalization: predictors of mortality

Management Number (percentage) unless indicated otherwise
Conservative management
   Drug cessation 219 (23.7)
   Calcium gluconate IV 536 (58.1)
   Dextrose fluid + insulin 486 (52.7)
   Sodium bicarbonate IV or PO 354 (38.4)
   Calcium polystyrene sulfonate enema 279 (30.2)
   Calcium polystyrene sulfonate PO 455 (49.3)
   Loop diuretics IV or PO 98 (10.6)
Renal replacement therapy
   Hemodialysis 176 (19.1)
   Continuous renal replacement therapy 71 (7.7)
Level of support I offered to patientsa 2.6 ± 1.8
Level of support II offered to patientsa 3.0 ± 1.9
Clinical outcomes Number (percentage)
Intensive care unit (ICU) treatment
   No ICU care 601 (65.1)
   Need for ICU care 126 (13.7)
   During ICU care 196 (21.2)
   Reasons for ICU admission  
Respiratory problem 146 (46.1)
Cardiac problem 26 (8.2)
Septic shock 32 (10.1)
Bleeding 17 (5.4)
Hemodynamic intensive monitoring 76 (24.0)
Others 20 (6.3)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)  
   No CPR 631 (68.4)
   CPR for issues related to severe hyperkalemia 60 (7.5)
   CPR for other reasons 232 (25.1)
Improvement in severe hyperkalemia 715 (77.5)
In-hospital mortality (death) 283 (30.7)
   Reasons for in-hospital mortality  
Respiratory problem 45 (15.9)
Cardiac problem 42 (14.8)
Septic shock 78 (27.6)
Progression of malignancy 20 (7.1)
Bleeding 35 (12.4)
Neurologic problem 20 (7.1)
Hepatic problem 23 (8.0)
Others 20 (7.1)
  1. aMean ± standard deviation. IV, intravenous; PO, by mouth (per os).