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Table 1 Demographic and clinical baseline characteristics

From: Severe hyperkalemia requiring hospitalization: predictors of mortality

Characteristics Number (percentage) unless indicated otherwise
Age, yearsa 61.1 ± 15.0
Male gender 586 (63.5)
Serum potassium level, mEq/L (K+ ≥6.5 mEq/L)a 7.1 ± 0.7
Serum potassium level at admission, mEq/La 5.7 ± 1.5
The type of admission  
   Planned admission 290 (31.4)
   Emergent admission 633 (68.6)
Admission for severe hyperkalemia 93 (10.1)
Onset of hyperkalemia  
   At the time of admission to the hospital 339 (40.0)
   During the period of hospitalization 554 (60.0)
Period from admission to diagnosis, daysa 16.7 ± 34.3
Location at diagnosis with hyperkalemia  
   Intensive care unit 171 (30.9)
   Surgical ward 111 (20.0)
   Medical ward 244 (44.0)
   Emergency room 28 (5.1)
Multi-organ failure at admission 108 (11.7)
Multi-organ failure at the time of diagnosis 226 (24.5)
Diagnosis at the time of cardiac arrest 187 (20.3)
Symptoms pertinent to hyperkalemia 432 (46.8)
   Cardiac arrest 187 (43.3)
   Arrhythmia 152 (35.2)
   Other typical symptoms 93 (21.5)
Underlying diseases  
   Diabetes mellitus 375 (40.6)
   Hypertension 427 (46.3)
   Chronic kidney disease (CKD) 648 (70.2)
Unknown stage 10 (1.5)
Stage II 158 (24.4)
Stage III 207 (31.9)
Stage IV 79 (12.3)
Stage V 194 (29.9)
   ESRD on dialysis 160 (17.3)
   Malignancy 299 (32.4)
   Liver cirrhosis 161 (17.4)
   Coronary artery disease 108 (11.7)
   Pulmonary diseases 95 (10.3)
   Cerebrovascular disease 95 (10.3)
   History of recurrence for severe hyperkalemia 62 (6.7)
   Congestive heart failure 71 (7.7)
   Arrhythmia  
Atrial fibrillation 100 (10.8)
First degree atrioventricular block 27 (2.9)
   Thyroid disease 38 (4.1)
Drugs  
   Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor 60 (6.5)
   Angiotensin II receptor blocker 165 (17.9)
   Potassium-sparing diuretics 108 (11.7)
   Beta blocker 124 (13.4)
   NSAIDs 22 (2.4)
   Digoxin 25 (2.7)
   Potassium supplements 129 (14.0)
Coexisting medical conditions  
   1. Renal impairment  
New-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) 205 (22.2)
AKI superimposed on CKD 478 (51.8)
Infection 304 (32.9)
Volume depletion 426 (46.2)
Bleeding 173 (18.7)
   2. Potassium shift from ICF to ECF  
Metabolic acidosis 592 (64.1)
Rhabdomyolysis 52 (5.6)
Tumor lysis syndrome 11 (1.2)
   3. Others  
Poor compliance to K+-lowering agents 30 (3.3)
Constipation 7 (0.8)
Transfusion 24 (2.6)
Adrenal insufficiency 16 (1.7)
ECG changes pertinent to hyperkalemia 481/673 (71.5)
Period from diagnosis to ECG change, minutesa 21.6 ± 99.0
   Typical findings 339 (70.5)
   Atypical findings 142 (29.5)
  1. aMean ± standard deviation. ECF, extracellular fluid; ECG, electrocardiogram; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; ICF, intracellular fluid; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.