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Table 1 Berlin Definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome

From: Clinical review: Acute respiratory distress syndrome - clinical ventilator management and adjunct therapy

Timing Within 1 week of a known clinical insult or new/worsening respiratory symptoms
Chest imaginga Bilateral opacities - not fully explained by effusions, lobar/lung collapse, or nodules
Origin of oedema Respiratory failure not fully explained by cardiac failure or fluid overload; need objective assessment (for example, echocardiography) to exclude hydrostatic oedema if no risk factor present
Oxygenationb  
   Mild 200 <PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300, with PEEP or CPAP ≥ 5 cmH2Oc
   Moderate 100 <PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200, with PEEP ≥ 5 cmH2O
   Severe PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 100, with PEEP ≥ 5 cmH2O
  1. CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; PaO2, partial pressure of arterial oxygen; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure. aChest X-ray or computed tomography scan. bIf altitude higher >1,000 m, correction factor should be made as follows: PaO2/FiO2×(barometric pressure / 760). cThis may be delivered non-invasively in the mild acute respiratory distress syndrome group. Adapted with permission from [9].