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Table 2 Characteristics of patients according to acute kidney injury

From: Doppler resistive index to reflect regulation of renal vascular tone during sepsis and acute kidney injury

  No AKI
(n = 42)
Transient AKI
(n = 24)
Persistent AKI
(n = 28)
P value
Mean arterial pressure, mm Hg 78 (67-86) 70 (65-87) 70 (65-87) 0.4
Heart rate, beats per minute 92 (78-105) 90 (83-120) 96 (79-117) 0.5
Fluid balance on inclusion day, mL 1,585 (837-2,612)a 1,725 (1,205-3,002) 2,650 (1,556-3,487)b 0.01
Norepinephrine dose, μg/kg per minute 0.18 (0.06-0.37)a 0.29 (0.11-0.45)a 0.48 (0.20-0.78)b,c 0.01
Cardiac index, L/minute per m² 3.1 (2.3-4.6) 3.3 (2.3-3.8) 3.1 (2.4-4.2) 1
Blood lactate, mEq/L 1.2 (0.9-2.0)a 1.5 (1.0-2.9) 2.4 (1.3-3.9)b 0.02
Hematocrit, percentage 30 (27-33) 31 (28-38) 29 (25-32) 0.3
PaO2/FiO2 ratio 240 (140-320) 240 (140-305) 180 (120-260) 0.1
Serum creatinine at inclusion, μmol/L 69 (45-81)a,c 160 (98-196)a,b 191 (134-243)b,c <0.0001
FeNa, percentage 0.5 (0.2-1)a,c 1.5 (0.6-2.4)b 2.7 (0.6-6.7)b 0.008
FeU, percentage 28 (16-39) 36 (31-45) 31 (12-46) 0.2
Resistance index 0.72 (0.68-0.75)a,c 0.75 (0.72-0.79)b 0.77 (0.70-0.80)b 0.005
  1. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range). FeNa, fractional excretion of sodium, was calculated as [(urine sodium/plasma sodium)/(urine creatinine/plasma creatinine)] × 100. FeU, fractional excretion of urea, was calculated as [(urine urea/plasma urea)/(urine creatinine/plasma creatinine)] × 100. P value refers to between-group comparisons (Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance with post hoc analysis). aP <0.05 compared with persistent acute kidney injury (AKI) group. bP <0.05 compared with no AKI group. cP <0.05 compared with transient AKI group. PaO2/FiO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen.