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Table 3 Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative therapies

From: A perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate does not improve renal function in cardiac surgery patients: a prospective observational cohort study

  Total cohort Control - no bicarbonate Intervention - bicarbonate Significance, P-value
Number 584 304 (52.1%) 280 (47.9%)  
Preoperative treatments
Beta-blocking agents 442 (75.8%) 234 (77.0%) 208 (74.6%) 0.558
ACE-inhibitors/ARB 424 (72.7%) 225 (74.0%) 199 (71.3%) 0.526
Diuretics 328 (56.4%) 173 (56.9%) 155 (55.8%) 0.844
Vasodilators 209 (35.8%) 110 (36.2%) 99 (35.5%) 0.929
Phenprocoumon 11 (1.9%) 4 (1.3%) 7 (2.5%) 0.451
Aspirine 373 (64.1%) 203 (66.8%) 170 (61.2%) 0.185
Clopidogrel 53 (9.1%) 24 (7.9%) 29 (10.4%) 0.366
Heparin, intravenous 95 (16.3%) 62 (20.4%) 33 (11.8%) 0.007
Lipid-lowering drugs 356 (61.1%) 197 (64.8%) 159 (57.0%) 0.065
Insulin 64 (11.0%) 30 (9.9%) 34 (12.2%) 0.446
Antibiotics 64 (11.0%) 33 (10.9%) 31 (11.1%) 0.973
Nitrates, intravenous 29 (5.0%) 17 (5.6%) 12 (4.3%) 0.599
Levosimendan 16 (2.7%) 7 (2.3%) 9 (3.2%) 0.669
Intraoperative fluids
Cristalline fluids, ml 1,948 (1,903, 1,993) 1,982 (,1921, 2,042) 1,911 (1,844, 1,978) 0.120
Colloidal fluids, ml 800 (756, 843) 791 (730, 852) 809 (748, 870) 0.680
Postoperative fluids within 24 h     
Cristalline fluids, ml 2,719 (2,667, 2,771) 2,590 (2,519, 2661) 2,859 (2,786, 2,933) < 0.0001
Colloidal fluids, ml 1,476 (1,412, 1,541) 1,404 (1,314, 1,494) 1,555(1,462, 1,647) 0.022
Intraoperative blood transfusion
PRC, patients transfused 314 (53.8%) 166 (54.6%) 148 (52.9%) 0.734
   units transfused 1 (0, 1) 1 (0, 1) 1 (0, 1) 0.925
FFP, patients transfused 38 (6.5%) 20 (6.6%) 18 (6.4%) 0.925
   units transfused 0 [0-0] 0 [0-0] 0 [0-0] 0.871
TC, patients transfused 30 (5.1%) 16 (5.3%) 14 (5.0%) 0.965
   units transfused 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0.980
Cellsaver, number patients 22 (3.8%) 15 (4.9%) 7 (2.5%) 0.185
Postoperative blood transfusion
PRC, patients transfused 253 (43.3%) 129 (42.4%) 124 (44.3%) 0.713
   units transfused 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.88) 0.505
FFP, patients transfused 43 (7.4%) 22 (7.2%) 21 (7.5%) 0.971
   units transfused 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.907
TC, patients transfused 43 (7.4%) 22 (7.2%) 21 (7.5%) 0.980
   units transfused 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.881
Intraoperative vasoactive and inotropic treatments
Levosimendan, n (%) 24 (4.1%) 11 (3.6%) 13 (4.6%) 0.679
   Before CPB 23 (3.9%) 11 (3.6%) 12 (4.3%) 0.531
   After CPB 1 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.4%)  
Noradrenaline, n (%) 522 (89.4%) 268 (88.2%) 254 (90.7%) 0.386
   < 0.3 mg/h 261 (44.7%) 148 (48.7%) 113 (40.4%) 0.069
   0.3 to 0.6 mg/h 187 (32.0%) 87 (28.6%) 100 (35.7%)  
   > 0.6 mg/h 74 (12.7%) 33 (10.9%) 41 (14.6%)  
Vasopressin, n (%) 49 (8.4%) 19 (6.2%) 30 (10.7%) 0.073
   < 3 U/h 33 (5.7%) 11 (3.6%) 22 (7.9%) 0.109
   3 to 6 U/h 15 (2.6%) 8 (2.6%) 7 (2.5%)  
   > 6 U/h 1 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.4%)  
Dobutamin, n (%) 330 (56.5%) 178 (58.6%) 152 (54.3%) 0.339
   < 15 mg/h 130 (22.3%) 70 (23.0%) 60 (21.4%) 0.278
   15 to 30 mg/h 170 (29.1%) 96 (31.6%) 74 (26.4%)  
   > 30 mg/h 30 (5.1%) 12 (3.9%) 18 (6.4%)  
PDE-III inhibitors, n (%) 249 (42.6%) 121 (39.8%) 128 (45.7%) 0.174
   Low dose 35 (6.0%) 14 (4.6%) 21 (7.5%) 0.126
   Moderate dose 198 (33.9%) 96 (31.6%) 102 (36.4%)  
   High dose 16 (2.7%) 11 (3.6%) 5 (1.8%)  
Postoperative vasoactive and inotropic treatment, n (%)
Levosimendan 24 (4.1%) 12 (3.9%) 12 (4.3%) 0.998
Noradrenalin 494 (84.6%) 246 (80.9%) 248 (88.6%) 0.015
   < 0.3 mg/h 262 (44.9%) 147 (48.4%) 115 (41.1%) 0.0013
   0.3 to 0.6 mg/h 140 (24.0%) 58 (19.1%) 82 (29.3%)  
   > 0.6 mg/h 92 (15.8%) 41 (13.5%) 51 (18.2%)  
Vasopressin 64 (11.0%) 29 (9.5%) 35 (12.5%) 0.312
   < 3 U/h 49 (8.4%) 19 (6.2%) 30 (10.7%) 0.116
   3 to 6 Uh 13 (2.2%) 8 (2.6%) 5 (1.8%)  
   > 6 U/h 2 (0.3%) 2 (0.7%) 0 (0.0%)  
Dobutamin 386 (66.1%) 207 (68.1%) 179 (63.9%) 0.330
   < 15 mg/h 184(31.5%) 97 (31.9%) 87 (31.1%) 0.728
   15 to 30 mg/h 164 (28.1%) 90 (29.6%) 74 (26.4%)  
   > 30 mg/h 38 (6.5%) 20 (6.6%) 18 (6.4%)  
PDE III inhibitors 312 (53.5%) 156 (51.3%) 156 (55.9%) 0.304
   Low dose 60 (10.3%) 32 (10.5%) 28 (10.0%) 0.665
   Moderate dose 224 (38.4%) 110 (36.2%) 114 (40.9%)  
   High dose 28 (4.8%) 14 (4.6%) 14 (5.0%)  
  1. Perioperative pharmacological treatments are shown for patients undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgery with or without a perioperative infusion of bicarbonate. ACE-inhibitors: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; PRC: packed red cells; FFP: fresh frozen plasma; TC: thrombocyte concentrate; PDE-III inhibitors; phosphodiesterase III inhibitors. Data are given as absolute numbers (percentage) for nominal variables, and as median (95% confidence interval) for non-normally distributed data, and mean (95% confidence interval) for normally distributed variables.