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Table 1 Demographic data and preoperative risk stratification

From: A perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate does not improve renal function in cardiac surgery patients: a prospective observational cohort study

  Total cohort Control - no bicarbonate Intervention - bicarbonate Significance, P-value
Number 584 304 (52.1%) 280 (47.9%)  
Demographics
Age, years 68.5 (67, 69) 68.5 (67, 70) 68.5 (67, 70) 0.675
Male 381 (65.2%) 201 (66.1%) 180 (64.3%) 0.706
Female 203 (34.8%) 103 (33.9%) 100 (35.7%)  
Height, cm 171 (170, 172) 171 (170, 173) 171 (170, 172) 0.741
Weight, Kg 81.3 (79.9, 82.6) 82.3 (80.6, 84.1) 80.1 (78.1, 82.1) 0.103
BMI (Kg/m2) 27.2 (26.8, 27.7) 27.4 (26.8, 27.9) 26.9 (26.5, 27.8) 0.098
Cardiovascular risk factors
Diabetes mellitus 158 (27.1%) 72 (23.8%) 86 (30.7%) 0.073
Arterial hypertension 484 (82.9%) 250 (82.2%) 234 (83.6%) 0.751
Smoking (former or present smoker) 246 (42.3%) 125 (41.5%) 121 (43.2%) 0.744
Hyperlipidemia 410 (70.2%) 217 (71.4%) 193 (68.9%) 0.578
Arterial vascular disease 135 (23.1%) 62 (20.4%) 73 (26.1%) 0.127
PAH (systolic > 60 mmHg) (n = 223) 32 (14.3%) 12 (11.1%) 20 (17.4%) 0.252
PAH (systolic > 40 mmHg) (n = 223) 112 (50.2%) 56 (51.9%) 56 (48.7%) 0.736
NYHA I/II 348 (59.6%) 184 (60.5%) 164 (58.6%) 0.692
NYHA III/IV 236 (40.4%) 120 (39.5%) 116 (41.4%)  
LVEF < 30% 32 (5.5%) 18 (6.0%) 14 (5.0%) 0.658
LVEF 30 to 50% 139 (24.0%) 68 (22.6%) 71 (25.5%)  
LVEF > 50% 408 (70.5%) 215 (71.4%) 193 (69.4%)  
ASA 3 (3, 3) 3 (3, 3) 3 (3, 3) 0.801
Add. EuroSCORE 5 (5, 5) 5 (5, 5) 4 (5, 5) 0.455
Add. EuroSCORE 0 to 2 134 (22.9%) 63 (20.7%) 71 (25.4%) 0.300
Add. EuroSCORE 3 to 5 205 (35.1%) 114 (37.5%) 91 (32.5%)  
Add. EuroSCORE > 5 245 (42.0%) 127 (41.8%) 118 (42.1%)  
Other risk factors
Pulmonary disease 91(15.6%) 46 (15.1%) 45 (16.1%) 0.843
Neurological disease 70 (12.0%) 36 (11.8%) 34 (12.1%) 0.988
Left main stem disease 84 (14.4%) 42 (13.8%) 42 (15.0%) 0.772
Previous cardiac or thoracic vascular surgery 63 (10.8%) 31 (10.2%) 32 (11.4%) 0.730
History of myocardial infarction 132 (22.6%) 80 (26.3%) 52 (18.6%) 0.033
Troponin-T positive status 14 (2.4%) 11 (3.6%) 3 (1.1%) 0.082
History of cardiogenic shock or acute decompensated heart failure 71 (12.2%) 32 (10.6%) 39 (13.9%) 0.278
Preoperative physiological profile
MAP, mmHg 97 (96, 98) 98 (96, 100) 96 (93, 99) 0.305
Heart rate, bpm 68 (67, 70) 68.5 (67, 70) 68 (67, 70) 0.918
Mean ScO2room, % 63 (62, 63) 62 (62, 64) 63 (62, 64) 0.695
Mean ScO2ox, % 68 (67, 68.17) 68 (67, 69) 68 (67, 69) 0.926
ScO2minox, % 66 (65, 67) 66 (65, 67) 65 (65, 67) 0.924
NTproBNP, pg/ml (n = 389) 455 (355, 519) 392 (312, 496) 517 (391, 686) 0.234
hsTNT, pg/ml (n = 389) 9 (8, 11) 9 (8, 13) 9 (7, 11) 0.850
  1. Demographics, risk factors, and preoperative physiological status are shown for patients undergoing elective, on-pump cardiac surgery with or without a perioperative infusion of bicarbonate. BMI: body mass index; PAH: pulmonary arterial hypertension; NYHA: New York Heart Association classification; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; ASA: American Society of Anesthesiology classification; Add.: additive; MAP: mean arterial pressure. ScO2: cerebral oxygen saturation determined bi-hemispherically by near-infrared spectroscopy; ScO2room: mean of both hemispheres determined when breathing room air; ScO2ox: mean of both hemispheres determined during application of oxygen-enriched air. ScO2minox: minimal ScO2 from the left or right hemisphere determined during application of oxygen-enriched air; NTproBNP: N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; hsTNT: high-sensitivity troponin-T. Data are given as absolute numbers (percentage) for nominal variables and median (95% confidence interval).