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Table 1 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of patients

From: Epidemiology and outcome of severe pneumococcal pneumonia admitted to intensive care unit: a multicenter study

  All patients
n = 222
Survivors
n = 158
Non-survivors
n = 64
P
Demographic     
Age 60 (49-75) 59 (48-70) 67 (54-80) 0.003
Male gender, n (%) 146 (66) 96 (57) 50 (78) 0.014
Underlying conditions     
Tobacco use, n (%) 89 (40) 62 (37) 27 (42) 0.5
Alcohol abuse, n (%) 65 (29) 44 (26) 21 (33) 0.34
COPD, n (%) 57 (26) 36 (21) 21 (33) 0.08
Immunosuppressive treatment, n (%) 49 (22) 32 (19) 17 (26) 0.36
Cirrhosis, n (%) 14 (6) 5 (3) 9 (14) 0.002
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 32 (14) 21 (12) 11 (17) 0.43
Chronic heart failure, n (%) 23 (10) 10 (6) 13 (20) 0.002
Chronic renal insufficiency, n (%) 12 (5) 6 (3) 6 (9) 0.1
Asplenia, n (%) 3 (1) 2 (1) 1 (2) 0.86
Systemic disease, n (%) 11 (5) 7 (4) 4 (6) 0.56
Cancer, n (%) 23 (10) 12 (7) 11 (17) 0.03
Long-term steroid therapy, n (%) 29 (13) 20 (12) 9 (14) 0.68
Clinical feature     
SAPS II 47 (36-64) 43 (34-56) 63 (49 75) < 0.001
Septic shock, n (%) 170 (76) 107 (64) 63 (98) < 0.001
ARDS, n (%) 100 (45) 57 (34) 43 (67) < 0.001
Ventilator-acquired pneumonia, n(%) 69 (31) 50 (32) 19 (30) 0.87
Bacteraemia, n (%) 101 (45) 73 (43) 28 (31) 0.71
Penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae strain, n (%) (over 194 patients) 117 (60) 83 (53) 34 (53) 0.99
Main laboratory findings on admission     
PaO2/FiO2 ratio 98 (73-149) 100 (75-156) 91 (61-128) 0.12
Lactate (mmol/L) 2.9 (1.6-5.9) 2.2 (1.3-5.6) 5.16 (2.6-9.1) 0.02
Glycaemia (mmol/L) 8.3 (5-13) 8.3 (4.9-12.6) 7.3 (4.9-11.2) 0.7
Urea (mmol/L) 10.7 (6.8-16.7) 9.3 (6.3-14.5) 12 (9.3-20.3) 0.13
Platelet count < 10,0000/mm3, n (%) 52 (23) 32 (19) 20 (31) 0.05
Leukocytes < 1000/mm3, n (%) 56 (25) 32 (19) 22 (34) 0.05
Prothrombin time < 50%, n (%) 55 (25) 30 (18) 25 (39) < 0.001
Bilirubin > 25 mmol/L, n (%) 59 (27) 26 (15) 23 (36) 0.001
Treatments     
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 186 (84) 123 (73) 63 (98) < 0.001
Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 70 (32) 30 (18) 40 (62) < 0.001
Antibiotherapy combination including macrolides, n (%) 163 (73) 110 (65) 53 (83) 0.04
Low-dose steroids, n (%) 69 (31) 41 (24) 28 (31) 0.001
Activated protein C, n (%) 44 (20) 32 (19) 12 (19) 0.78
  1. Data are expressed as median and interquartile range. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SAPS: Simplified Acute Physiology Score; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; S.pneumoniae: Streptococcus pneumonia.