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Table 4 Cumulative 31- to 365-day mortality and corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)

From: One-year mortality among Danish intensive care patients with acute kidney injury: a cohort study

  Number Without AKI With AKI
   Cumulative mortality
% (95%CI)
Adjusted HR
(95%CI)
Cumulative mortality
% (95%CI)
Adjusted HRa
(95%CI)
Overall 25,539 10.7 (10.3-11.1) 1 (reference) 22.2 (20.7-23.7) 1.49 (1.36-1.63)
Age group, years      
   ≥ 15 < 40 4,516 1.7 (1.4-2.1) 1 (reference) 5.1 (2.8-8.9) 1.52 (0.79-2.94)
   ≥ 40 < 60 6,627 7.5 (6.9-8.2) 1 (reference) 15.4 (12.9-18.3) 1.58 (1.27-1.97)
   ≥ 60 < 80 11,561 13.8 (13.2-14.5) 1 (reference) 23.8 (21.7-26.0) 1.41 (1.25-1.59)
   ≥ 80 2,835 21.8 (20.2-23.6) 1 (reference) 34.2 (30.1-38.5) 1.46 (1.22-1.74)
Charlson comorbidity index score      
   Low (score 0) 13,834 5.5 (5.1-5.9) 1 (reference) 15.3 (13.4-17.4) 1.88 (1.59-2.22)
   Medium (score 1 to 2) 8,403 14.5 (13.7-15.4) 1 (reference) 25.8 (23.3-28.5) 1.60 (1.40-1.83)
   High (score ≥ 3) 3,302 24.6 (23.0-26.2) 1 (reference) 29.6 (26.1-33.5) 1.12 (0.94-1.34)
Surgical status c, d      
   Non-surgical 9,234 10.3 (9.6-10.9) 1 (reference) 22.1 (20.0-24.5) 1.42 (1.24-1.63)
   Surgical      
Acute non-cardiac 8,038 13.1 (12.4-13.9) 1 (reference) 23.97 (21.5-26.5) 1.46 (1.27-1.68)
Acute cardiac 873 5.6 (4.2-7.4) 1 (reference) 21.4 (14.5-30.9) 4.44 (2.63-7.51)
Elective non-cardiac 4,039 14.3 (13.2-15.4) 1 (reference) 19.1 (15.2-23.9) 1.28 (0.98-1.67)
Elective cardiac 3.355 3.8 (3.2-4.5) 1 (reference) 12.0 (6.4-21.8) 2.96 (1.50-5.85)
Primary diagnosis during current hospitalization      
   Septicemia 340 21.8 (15.9-29.6) 1 (reference) 17.7 (13.0-23.7) 0.81 (0.49-1.32)
   Infectious diseases 2,380 10.0 (8.8-11.4) 1 (reference) 19.8 (16.2-24.0) 1.28 (1.02-1.61)
   Endocrinology diseases 498 10.2 (7.4-14.0) 1 (reference) 12.1 (8.0-18.2) 0.85 (0.48-1.50)
   Cardiovascular diseases 6,829 6.2 (5.7-6.9) 1 (reference) 20.9 (17.5-24.8) 2.21 (1.76-2.78)
   Respiratory diseases 1,202 22.0 (19.6-24.7) 1 (reference) 31.6 (25.2-39.1) 1.27 (0.94-1.73)
   Gastrointestinal or liver diseases 2,486 14.0 (12.6-15.6) 1 (reference) 25.3 (21.7-29.4) 1.75 (1.41-2.17)
   Cancer or other neoplasm 3,350 24.5 (23.0-26.0) 1 (reference) 32.0 (26.9-37.7) 1.17 (0.93-1.46)
   Trauma or poisoning 4,560 5.3 (4.6-6.0) 1 (reference) 20.7 (16.2-26.2) 1.85 (1.36-2.53)
   Other 3,894 8.1 (7.3-9.1) 1 (reference) 19.0 (15.7-22.9) 1.37 (1.08-1.75)
Chronic kidney disease b      
   Yes 3,084 19.5 (18.0-21.1) 1 (reference) 28.7 (25.2-32.5) 1.43 (1.19-1.71)
   No 22,455 9.6 (9.2-10.0) 1 (reference) 20.5 (18.9-22.2) 1.48 (1.33-1.64)
ICU treatments      
   Mechanical ventilation 8,976 10.6 (10.0-11.4) 1 (reference) 24.6 (22.3-27.0) 1.49 (1.30-1.70)
   Inotropes/vasopressors 7,691 12.3 (11.5-13.2) 1 (reference) 24.7 (22.5-27.1) 1.46 (1.27-1.66)
  1. aCompared to patients without AKI within subgroups and adjusted for age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index score, surgical status, and chronic kidney disease.
  2. beGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.
  3. cSurgical status and cardiac surgical status identified by surgery and surgical type on or up to 7 days before ICU admission, respectively.
  4. dAcute and elective status classified according to hospital admission type.
  5. AKI, acute kidney injury; CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; ICU, intensive care unit.