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Table 5 Statin use and pneumonia risk and mortality within various patient subgroups

From: The impact of statin use on pneumonia risk and outcome: a combined population-based case-control and cohort study

Variables Risk of hospitalization for pneumonia, OR (95% CI) 30-day mortality after hospitalization for pneumonia, HR (95% CI)
Main model for 1997-2009 Current statin use Former statin use Current statin use Former statin use
Calendar time     
   1997-2000 0.77 (0.68-0.88) 1.12 (0.84-1.49) 0.57 (0.38-0.85) 1.04 (0.52-2.10)
   2001-2004 0.79 (0.74-0.85) 0.88 (0.77-1.00) 0.70 (0.59-0.83) 0.95 (0.70-1.29)
   2005-2009 0.81 (0.77-0.84) 0.98 (0.92-1.05) 0.74 (0.67-0.82) 0.90 (0.78-1.03)
Charlson comorbidity index score     
   Low, 0 0.78 (0.72-0.84) 1.03 (0.90-1.18) 0.73 (0.56-0.94) 0.77 (0.48-1.22)
   Medium, 1-2 0.74 (0.70-0.78) 0.83 (0.76-0.91) 0.73 (0.64-0.83) 0.79 (0.63-0.98)
   High, ≥3 0.74 (0.68-0.81) 0.90 (0.79-1.04) 0.69 (0.61-0.77) 0.93 (0.79-1.09)
Age     
   15-39 years 0.98 (0.60-1.60) 0.82 (0.42-1.60) 0.00 0.00
   40-64 years 0.78 (0.72-0.84) 1.07 (0.95-1.21) 0.77 (0.61-0.97) 0.89 (0.65-1.21)
   65-79 years 0.74 (0.71-0.78) 0.91 (0.84-0.99) 0.69 (0.61-0.78) 0.85 (0.71-1.02)
   ≥80 years 0.80 (0.75-0.85) 0.85 (0.76-0.95) 0.75 (0.66-0.85) 0.95 (0.77-1.16)
   Patients with indication for statin usea 0.70 (0.67-0.73) 0.78 (0.72-0.85) 0.70 (0.64-0.77) 0.86 (0.75-1.00)
Supplementary adjusted model for 2001-2009     
   Receipt of current year's influenza vaccine before index date 0.78 (0.72-0.85) 0.89 (0.78-1.01) 0.76 (0.65-0.88) 0.92 (0.72-1.18)
   Preventive GP consultations and services 0.77 (0.69-0.86) 1.10 (0.94-1.29) 0.80 (0.66-0.97) 0.92 (0.70-1.19)
   Social medicine-related GP consultations 0.73 (0.66-0.81) 0.91 (0.77-1.08) 0.82 (0.72-0.94) 0.96 (0.79-1.18)
   GP conversational therapy 0.80 (0.61-1.04) 0.87 (0.59-1.29) 0.89 (0.67-1.19) 0.66 (0.41-1.05)
   Application for reimbursement for chronic illness 0.43 (0.23-0.81) 0.43 (0.16-1.22) 0.64 (0.47-0.86) 0.86 (0.54-1.35)
  1. aPrevious diagnosis of ischemic or unspecified stroke, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, or diabetes mellitus. For International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes, see Additional file 4. Adjusted pneumonia hospitalization odds ratios (ORs) (case-control study) and 30-day mortality hazard ratios (HRs) (cohort study) associated with current and former use of statins are shown. CI, confidence interval; GP, general practitioner.