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Table 3 Cohort study: characteristics of 70,953 patients hospitalized for pneumonia for the first time in Denmark according to statin use (1997-2009)

From: The impact of statin use on pneumonia risk and outcome: a combined population-based case-control and cohort study

Characteristics at time of pneumonia
admission
Current
statin use
(≤125 days)
n = 7,223
(10.2%)
Former statin use
(>125 days)
n = 1,903
(2.7%)
Never
statin use
n = 61,827
(87.1%)
Total
n = 70,953
(100%)
Age, number (percentage)     
   15-39 years 43 (0.6) 19 (1.0) 5078 (8.2) 5,140 (7.2)
   40-64 years 1,756 (24.3) 518 (27.2) 15,529 (25.1) 17,803 (25.1)
   65-79 years 3,819 (52.9) 929 (48.8) 21,374 (34.6) 26,122 (36.8)
   ≥80 years 1,605 (22.2) 437 (23.0) 19,846 (32.1) 21,888 (30.9)
Sex, number (percentage)     
   Female 3,047 (42.2) 855 (44.9) 29,389 (47.5) 33,291 (46.9)
   Male 4,176 (57.8) 1,048 (55.1) 32,438 (52.5) 37,662 (53.1)
Calendar period, number (percentage)     
   1997-2000 340 (4.7) 62 (3.3) 17,359 (28.0) 17,761 (25.0)
   2001-2004 1,520 (21.0) 318 (16.7) 21,957 (36.0) 23,795 (33.5)
   2005-2009 5,363 (74.3) 1,523 (80.0) 22,511 (36.4) 29,397 (41.4)
Preadmission hospital-diagnosed comorbidities, number (percentage)     
Conditions included in Charlson index     
   Previous myocardial infarction 2,346 (32.5) 482 (25.3) 3,877 (6.2) 6,705 (9.5)
   Congestive heart failure 1,443 (20.0) 358 (18.8) 5,661 (9.2) 7,462 (10.5)
   Peripheral vascular disease 1,506 (20.9) 389 (20.4) 4,206 (6.8) 6,101 (8.6)
   Cerebrovascular disease 2,030 (28.1) 495 (26.0) 8,151 (13.2) 10,676 (15)
   Dementia 134 (1.9) 36 (1.9) 1,412 (2.3) 1,582 (2.23)
   Hemiplegia 36 (0.5) 6 (0.3) 430 (0.7) 472 (0.7)
   Chronic pulmonary disease 1,728 (23.9) 431 (22.7) 12,299 (19.9) 14,458 (20.4)
   Connective tissue disease 441 (6.1) 134 (7.0) 3,185 (5.2) 3,760 (5.3)
   Peptic ulcer disease 735 (10.2) 215 (11.3) 5,253 (8.5) 6,203 (8.4)
   Mild liver disease 82 (1.1) 52 (2.7) 1,165 (1.9) 1,299 (1.8)
   Moderate to severe liver disease 17 (0.2) 22 (1.2) 347 (0.6) 386 (0.5)
   Diabetes without end-stage organ damage 1,505 (20.8) 392 (20.6) 3,766 (6.0) 5,663 (8.0)
   Diabetes with end-stage organ damage 942 (13.0) 242 (12.7) 1,794 (2.9) 2,978 (4.2)
   Moderate to severe renal disease 532 (7.4) 189 (9.9) 1,993 (3.2) 2,714 (3.8)
   Solid cancer 1,114 (15.4) 384 (20.2) 9,242 (15) 10,740 (15.1)
   Metastatic solid cancer 195 (2.7) 87 (4.6) 1,761 (2.9) 2,043 (2.9)
   Leukemia 53 (0.7) 19 (1.0) 672 (1.1) 744 (1.1)
   Lymphoma 98 (1.4) 53 (2.8) 1,157 (1.9) 1,308 (1.8)
   AIDS 3 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 85 (0.1) 88 (0.1)
Charlson comorbidity index score     
   Low, 0 1,052 (14.6) 290 (15.2) 24,966 (40.4) 26,308 (37.0)
   Medium, 1-2 3,259 (45.0) 772 (40.6) 24,609 (39.8) 28,640 (40.4)
   High, ≥3 2,912 (40.3) 841 (44.2) 12,252 (19.8) 16,005 (22.6)
Additional comorbidity     
   Alcoholism-related disorders 352 (4.9) 135 (7.1) 3,813 (6.2) 4,300 (6.1)
   Obesity 588 (8.1) 137 (7.2) 1,906 (3.1) 2,631 (3.7)
   Any surgical procedure within 90 days of index date 1,970 (27.3) 518 (27.2) 12,298 (19.9) 14,786 (20.8)
Preadmission medications within 125 days of index date unless otherwise indicated, number (percentage)     
   Immunosuppressive drugs (within 1 year of index date) 157 (2.2) 49 (2.6) 1,141 (1.9) 1,347 (1.9)
   Oral steroids (within 1 year of index date) 1,459 (20.2) 436 (22.9) 11,230 (18.2) 13,125 (18.5)
   Systemic antibiotic therapy (within 90 days of index date) 2,995 (41.5) 790 (41.5) 24,978 (40.4) 28,763 (40.5)
Users of inhalation medications     
   Beta2 agonists only 509 (7.0) 153 (8.0) 4,854 (7.9) 5,516 (7.8)
   Corticosteroid therapy only 86 (1.2) 18 (1.0) 719 (1.2) 823 (1.2)
   Corticosteroids and beta2 agonists 1,105 (15.3) 257 (13.5) 7,757 (12.6) 9,119 (12.9)
   Beta blockers 3,290 (45.6) 579 (30.4) 8,124 (13.1) 11,993 (16.9)
   Low-dose aspirin 3,473 (48.1) 665 (35.0) 8,605 (13.9) 12,743 (18.0)
   Loop diuretics 2,672 (37.0) 589 (30.1) 14,558 (23.6) 17,819 (25.1)
   Thiazides 1,347 (18.7) 309 (16.2) 7,782 (12.6) 9,438 (13.3)
   Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor 2,512 (34.8) 462 (24.3) 6,339 (10.3) 9,313 (13.1)
   Angiotensin II antagonists 1,273 (17.6) 289 (15.2) 3,037 (4.9) 4,599 (6.5)
   Digoxin 671 (9.3) 151 (7.9) 5,252 (8.5) 6,074 (8.6)
   Vitamin K antagonist 927 (12.8) 179 (9.4) 2,918 (4.7) 4,024 (5.7)
   Calcium antagonists 2,261 (31.3) 467 (24.5) 7,742 (12.5) 10,470 (14.8)
   Nitrates 1,658 (23.0) 293 (15.4) 4,436 (7.2) 6,387 (9.0)
   Antipsychotics 397 (5.5) 115 (6.0) 4,392 (7.1) 4,904 (6.9)
   Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 1,341 (18.6) 349 (18.3) 10,953 (17.7) 12,643 (17.8)
   Proton-pump inhibitors 1,860 (25.8) 542 (28.5) 9,071 (14.7) 11,473 (16.2)
Markers of socioeconomic status, number (percentage)     
Marital status, number (percentage)     
   Married 4,131 (57.2) 1,034 (54.3) 28,261 (45.7) 33,426 (47.1)
   Never married 463 (6.4) 102 (5.4) 8,393 (13.6) 8,958 (12.6)
   Divorced or widowed 2,614 (36.2) 764 (40.2) 25,005 (40.4) 28,383 (40.0)
   Unknown 15 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 168 (0.3) 186 (0.3)
Urbanization of place of residence, number (percentage)     
   Rural 1,235 (17.1) 283 (14.9) 11,921 (18.3) 12,809 (18.0)
   Provincial town 4,054 (56.1) 1,055 (55.4) 34,083 (55.1) 39,192 (55.2)
   City 1,934 (26.8) 565 (29.7) 16,453 (26.6) 18,952 (26.7)
Markers of frailty or health awareness, number (percentage)a     
   Receipt of current year's reimbursed influenza vaccine before index date 2,267 (32.9) 519 (28.2) 6,760 (15.2) 9,546 (18.0)
   Preventive GP consultations and services 1,867 (27.1) 528 (28.7) 3,472 (7.8) 5,867 (11.0)
   Social medicine-related GP consultations 1,967 (28.6) 578 (31.4) 12,589 (28.3) 15,134 (28.5)
   GP conversational therapy 780 (11.3) 237 (12.9) 4,108 (9.2) 5,125 (9.6)
   Application for reimbursement for chronic illness 670 (9.7) 145 (7.9) 1,888 (4.3) 2,703 (5.1)
   Application for reimbursement for terminal illness 28 (0.4) 21 (1.1) 225 (0.5) 274 (0.5)
   GP diagnosis and treatment of dementia 85 (1.2) 29 (1.6) 446 (1.0) 560 (1.1)
  1. aAscertained among 53,192 pneumonia patients hospitalized in 2001-2009. GP, general practitioner.