Elevated plasma IL-6 and impaired stimulated IFNγ secretion are correlated with outcome. At the time of enrollment, plasma was collected and PBMCs were isolated and stimulated for 48 hours with α-CD3 and α-CD28 antibodies. Plasma IL-6 levels (A) or PBMC stimulated IFNγ secretion (B) was measured by Cytokine Bead Array. The levels were compared between patients who recovered uneventfully and those who died or who either died or developed a second infection. P values were determined by a non-parametric 2-tailed Mann Whitney U-test.