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Table 3 Outcome data of the randomized controlled trials included in the meta-analysis (comparison of probiotics versus control)

From: Probiotics' effects on the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Incidence of
NP/VAP, n/N
ICU mortality, n/N In-hospital
mortality, n/N
Length of ICU stay, median days (range) Length of hospital stay, median days (range)
Barraud et al. [30] 23/87 vs. 15/80 (VAP) 21/87
vs. 21/80
NA 18.7 ± 12.4 vs.20.2 ± 20.8 26.6 ± 22.3
vs. 28.9 ± 26.4
Besselink et al. [33] 24/152 vs. 16/144 NA 24/152
vs. 9/144
6.6 ± 17.1vs. 3.0 ± 9.3 28.9 ± 41.5
vs. 23.5 ± 25.9
Forestier et al [31] 24/102 vs. 24/106 (VAP) NA NA NA NA
Giamarellos-Bourboulis et al. [23] 15/36 vs. 16/36 (VAP) NA 5/36
vs. 10/36
NA NA
Kanazawa et al. [24] 0/21 vs. 1/23 NA 0/21
vs. 0/23
1.3 ± 0.9
vs. 1.3 ± 0.7
36.9 ± 16.4
vs. 47.0 ± 19.2
Knight et al. [32] 12/130 vs.17/129 (VAP) 28/130
vs. 34/129
35/130
vs. 42/129
6 (3-11)
vs. 7 (3-14)
19 (3-36)
vs. 18 (7-32)
Morrow et al. [22] 17/68vs. 33/70 (VAP) NA 12/68
vs.15/70
14.8 ± 11.8 vs. 14.6 ± 11.6 21.4 ± 14.9
vs. 21.7 ± 17.4
Rayes et al. [25] 2/30 vs. 6/30 NA 0/30
vs. 0/30
NA 14 ± 4
vs. 16 ± 5.5
Rayes et al. [26] 0/33 vs. 1/33 NA 0/33
vs.0/33
8.80 ± 0.9
vs. 10.2 ± 1.8
27.8 ± 2.4
vs. 27.9 ± 2.1
Rayes et al. [27] 0/40 vs. 4/40 NA 1/40 vs. 1/40 2 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 12 17 ± 8 vs. 22 ± 16
Spindler-Vesel et al. [28] 4/26 vs. 34/87 (VAP) 2/26
vs. 5/87
NA NA NA
Tan et al.[29] 9/22 vs. 14/21 NA 0/22 vs. 1/21 7.1 ± 3.3
vs.11.3 ± 7.9
NA
  1. ICU: intensive care unit; NA: not available; NP: nosocomial pneumonia; VAP: ventilator-associated pneumonia.