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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population in various studies

From: Probiotics' effects on the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study, year Study design Population Disease severity
Score
Regimen used Route of administration/duration of intake
Barraud et al., 2010 [30] SC DBRCT General/all intubated adult patients under MV ≥ 48 hours SAPS II:58.6 ± 17.3 vs. 60.5 ± 19.6 Ergyphilus (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum) Enteral feeding tube/entire period of MV and additional days
Besselink et al., 2008 [33] MC DBRCT Patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis APACHE II:
8.6 ± 4.4 vs. 8.4 ± 4.5
Ecologic 641 (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus salivarius,Lactococcus lactis, Bifi dobacterium bifidum, and Bifidobacterium
lactis)
Nasojejunal tube/28 days
Forestier et al., 2008 [31] SC RCT General/patients (>18 yrs) requiring MV > 48 hours SAPS II: 4 5± 16 vs. 44 ± 15 Lactobacillus caseirhamnosus Nasogastric or orogastric tube/until ICU discharge or death
Giamarellos-Bourboulis et al., 2009 [23] MC DBRCT Surgical/severe multiple organ injuries necessitating emergency tracheal intubation and ventilation support APACHE II: 19.36 vs. 19.36 Synbiotic2000 FORTE (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides,
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum)
Nasogastric tube or through gastostomy/15 consecutive days post admission
Kanazawa et al., 2005 [24] SC RCT Surgical/patients with biliary cancer, scheduled to undergo combined liver and extrahepatic bile duct resection with hepaticojejunostomy NA Yakult BL Seichōyaku (Bifidobacterium breve Strain Yakult,
Lactobacillus casei strain
Shirota)
Intraoperative jejunal feeding catheter/14 days post-surgery
Knight et al. 2009, [32] SC DBRCT General/patients (> 16yrs) requiring MV > 48 hours APACHE II: 17 (12-23) vs.17 (12-22) Synbiotic2000 FORTE (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides,
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum)
Nasogastric or orogastric tube/until 28 days after ICU admission, discharge or death
Morrow et al., 2010 [22] SC DBRCT General/patients (> 19 yrs) requiring MV with an endotracheal tube for at least 72 hours APACHE II: 22.7 ± 7.5 (8-38) vs. 23.7 ± 8.0 (8-41) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Nasogastric tube/until extubation, tracheostomy placement, or death
Rayes et al., 2002 [25] RCT Surgical/patients who were scheduled for major abdominal surgery NA Lactobacillus plantarum 299 and fibres Nasojejunal tube/7 days post-surgery
Rayes et al., 2005 [26] DBRCT Surgical/patients scheduled for liver transplantation NA Synbiotic2000 FORTE (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides,
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum)
Nasojejunal tube/14 days post-surgery
Rayes et al., 2007 [27] MC DBRCT Surgical/patients who were scheduled for pancreaticoduodenectomy NA Synbiotic2000 FORTE (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides,
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum)
Oral (pre-surgery) and nasojejunal tube (post-surgery)/1 day pre- to 8 days post-surgery
Spindler- Vesel et al., 2009 [28] SC RCT Surgical/multiple injury patients requiring MV and at least 4 days stay in ICU APACHE II: 14 (12-19) vs. NA Synbiotic2000 FORTE (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides,
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum)
Intragastric tube/until ICU discharge or death
Tan et al., 2011[29] SC RCT Surgical/patients with closed head injury only; admission within 24 hours after trauma (18 to 60 yrs) APACHE II: 14.8 ± 3.6 vs 14.8 ± 3.6 Golden Bifid (Bifidobacterium
longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus,
and Streptococcus thermophilus)
Nasogastric tube/21 consecutive days
  1. APACHE: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; DB: double-blind; ICU: intensive care unit; MC: multicenter; MV: mechanical ventilation; NA: not available; RCT: randomized control trial; SAPS: Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SC: single-center.