Skip to main content

Table 1 Effects of cytokines during liver sepsis

From: Clinical review: The liver in sepsis

Cytokines Effects of cytokines References
TNF-α Pro-inflammatory response and stimulation of IL-6 production by HCs [31]
IL-6 Pro-inflammatory response, stimulation of acute-phase proteins, and activation and release of TGF-β [29, 3133]
IL-1β Pro-inflammatory response and synergistic action with TNF-α [3, 31]
TGF-β Anti-inflammatory response and counteracting of the extension of inflammatory response [33]
IL-18 LPS-induced liver toxicity and secretion of IFN-γ [36]
IFN-γ HC apoptosis, elevation of TNF-α, and upregulation of CD14 [30]
IL-10 Anti-inflammatory response and downregulation of LPS-induced IL-6 release [32]
  1. HC, hepatocyte; IFN-γ, interferon-gamma; IL, interleukin; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-beta; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha.