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Table 2 Human models of acute lung injury evaluating the effects of treatment with nebulized anticoagulant therapy.

From: Nebulized anticoagulants for acute lung injury - a systematic review of preclinical and clinical investigations

Drug Model, design, dose and nebulizer Effect parameter, observed effect and safety Reference
Heparin RCT of 50 patients expected to need
> 48 hours of MV
25,000 U 6 dd for 14 days
Aeroneb Proa
Heparin increased the number of ventilator-free days; P/F ratio and mortality were unaffected. There was a trend for less tracheotomies with heparin.
The incidence of systemic bleeding was not affected; heparin increased APTT.
Dixon
[15]
Heparin +
N-acetylcysteine +
albulterol
Case control study of 30 patients after smoke inhalation
10,000 U 6 dd for 7 days
Nebulizer not stated
Heparin + acetylcysteine + albulterol improved survival and lung injury score.
Effects on systemic coagulation and systemic bleeding were not reported.
Miller
[45]
Heparin Phase 1 trial of 16 patients with ALI
50-400 × 103 U/day for 2 days
Aeroneb Proa
Heparin attenuated pulmonary coagulation; P/F ratio and lung compliance were not affected.
Heparin increased APTT. The incidence of systemic bleedings was not affected.
Dixon
[43, 44]
  1. See original manuscript for details. aAerogen, Galway, Ireland. ALI: acute lung injury; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; MV, mechanical ventilation; RCT, randomized controlled trial.