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Table 2 Characteristics of included observational (before-after) studies of restrictive versus routine CXR strategies.

From: Routine chest x-rays in intensive care units: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ICU Population Patient selection criteria Location Total patients (n) CXRs/patients, restrictive group (n/n) CXRs/patients, routine group (n/n) Outcomes used in meta-analysis
Rao et al., 1997 [17]a Post cardiac surgery Exclusion criteria: ICU length of stay > 36 hours, death within 36 hours UK 200 36/100 304/100 Hospital length of stay
Price et al., 1999 [18]b Pediatric Exclusion criterion: Cardiothoracic surgical patients USA 3,427 5,939/1,588 10,585/1,839 ICU and hospital length of stayc
Duration of mechanical ventilationc
Leong et al., 2000 [19]d Post cardiac surgery All patients included USA 200 334/100 520/100 Hospital mortality
ICU and hospital length of stay
Duration of mechanical ventilation
Krinsley et al., 2003 [20] Medical-surgical, Adult All patients included USA 2,564 2,298/1,267 3,093/1,297 Hospital mortality
ICU length of stay
Duration of mechanical ventilation
Graat et al., 2007 [21] Medical-surgical, Adult Exclusion criteria: Readmissions Netherlands 1,376 1,115/622 3,194/754 ICU and hospital mortality
Hendriske et al., 2007 [22] Medical-surgical, Adult Exclusion criteria: Cardiothoracic surgical and neurosurgical patients Netherlands 736 907/250 1,780/486 Hospital mortality
  1. aThe study included one group with routine CXRs, a second group with less frequent routine CXRs, and a third group with CXRs ordered only as clinically indicated. We abstracted data from the first and third groups; bThis study included a control phase with routine CXRs, an evaluative phase with a small convenience sample of patients with routine CXRs in which the investigators studied the impact of routine CXRs on patient management, and a post intervention phase with no routine CXRs. We abstracted data from the first and third phases; cOutcomes data were abstracted from Figure 5; dThis study included a control group with routine daily CXRs, a second group with CXRs ordered when clinically indicated and routine CXRs only on admission and after extubation (two months after the change was implemented), and a third group with the same CXR strategy as the second group studied 4 years after the change was implemented. We abstracted data from the first and third groups. CXR, chest X-ray; n, number.