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Table 1 All published studies investigating the efficacy of asialo-EPO in pre-clinical models of disease

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Erythropoietin and its derivatives as therapies in critical care

Species Model Dose Route Drug protocol Outcome Similar efficacy with EPO Reference
Rat Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion 44 μg/kg IV On reperfusion Neuroprotection Yes [20]
Rat Spinal cord compression 10 μg/kg IV After compression Neuroprotection Yes [20]
Rat Sciatic nerve crush 50 μg/kg IV 24 h or 15 minutes pre-treatment, or after nerve crush Neuroprotection Yes [20]
Rat Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia 80 μg/kg IP 4 h pre-treatment Neuroprotection Yes [55]
Rat Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia 40 μg/kg IP 24 h and 4 h pre-treatment No protection Yes [55]
Rat Spinal cord compression 10 μg/kg IV 24 h pre-treatment Neuroprotection Yes [56]
Mouse Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 32 μg/kg IP 3 times per week for 9 weeks Neuroprotection Yes [57]
Rat Kainite-induced cell death of primary dissociated anterior horn cultures, in vitro 2.5 pmol/ml NA 72 h pre-treatment Tissue protection Yes [57]
Mouse Bi-lateral renal ischemia/reperfusion 2.5 μg/kg SC 30 minutes pre-treatment Renoprotection Yes [21]
Rat Contrast-induced nephropathy 80 μg/kg IV 1 h pre-treatment Renoprotection Yes [58]
NA Contrast-induced cell death of LLC-PK1 cultures, in vitro 25 ng/ml NA 1 h pre-treatment Tissue protection Yes [58]
Rat Intestine ischemia/reperfusion 5 μg/kg SC 10 minutes pre-treatment, 30 minutes into ischemia and on reperfusion Intestinal protection Yes [22]
Rat Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion 20 μg/kg/day IV infusion Started on reperfusion for 4 days Neuroprotection Yes [59]
Mouse Uni-lateral renal ischemia/reperfusion with diabetes 15 μg/kg SC 30 minutes pre-treatment Renoprotection Yes [60]
Gerbil Bi-lateral common carotid artery occlusion 50 μg/kg IP 3 h pre-treatment, on reperfusion and 24 h into reperfusion Neuroprotection Yes [61]
Mouse 5/6 nephrectomy with subsequent heart failure 23 μg/kg SC Twice a week for 4 weeks after establishment of renal dysfunction Cardioprotection Yes [62]
Rat Lumbar disc herniation 13.4 μg/kg SC 1 day pre-treatment and daily for 2 weeks Reduced pain related behavior Yes [63]
  1. It is evident that derivatives of erythropoietin (EPO) are protective to a similar degree, at similar doses, as EPO. These comparisons can be made, in this instance, since all of the studies listed here were conducted with an additional control group with EPO. Asialo-EPO, as well as EPO, is beneficial in several different species and disease targets associated with the brain, spinal cord, kidney, heart and intestine via multiple routes of administration. For comparison, EPO at 5,000 IU/kg = 25 μg/kg = 714 pmol/kg and for asialo-EPO at 23 μg/kg = 714 pmol/kg. EPO, erythropoietin; IP, intraperitoneal; IV, intravenous; NA, not applicable; SC, subcutaneous.