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Table 1 Summary of recent randomized controlled trials of etomidate

From: Pro/con debate: Is etomidate safe in hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients?

Study N Intervention Subjects Main outcomes
Absalom et al. 1999 [32] 35 Etomidate versus thiopentone ASA III, two or more organ failures Etomidate may interfere with cortisol synthesis for at least 24 hours
Schenarts et al. 2001 [33] 18 Etomidate versus midazolam Emergency department patients requiring intubation CST significantly different at 4 hours, same response at 12 and 24 hours
Hildreth et al. 2008 [34] 30 Etomidate versus midazolam and fentanyl Trauma patients requiring intubation Chemical evidence of AI and may have contributed to increased hospital and ICU lengths of stay
Jabre et al. 2009 [3] 469 Etomidate versus ketamine Emergency department patients requiring intubation No difference in 28 day morbidity or mortality
Tekwani et al. 2010 [35] 122 Etomidate versus midazolam Emergency department suspected sepsis requiring intubation No difference in mean hospital length of stay, ventilator days, ICU stay or in-hospital mortality
Morel et al. 2011 [36] 100 Etomidate versus propofol Elective cardiac surgery Etomidate blunts the HPA for more than 24 hours, no associated increase in vasopressor requirements
  1. AI adrenal insufficiency; ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists; CST, corticotrophin stimulation test; HPA, hypothalamic pituitary axis.